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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________
FORM 10-K

þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR

o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-32514
DIAMONDROCK HOSPITALITY COMPANY
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Maryland
 
20-1180098
(State of Incorporation)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
2 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 1400, Bethesda, Maryland
 
20814
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(240) 744-1150
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   o Yes þ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



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Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes þ No
The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and Directors are “affiliates” of the Registrant) as of June 29, 2018, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $2.5 billion (based on the closing sale price of the Registrant's Common Stock on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange).
The registrant had 201,392,563 shares of its $0.01 par value common stock outstanding as of February 26, 2019.

Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2018, are incorporated by reference in Part III herein.
 



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INDEX
 
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believes,” “project,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “strategy,” “plan,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “strive,” “endeavor,” “mission,” “goal,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

negative changes in the economy, including, but not limited to, a reversal of current job growth trends, an increase in unemployment or a decrease in corporate earnings and investment;
increased competition in the lodging industry and from alternative lodging channels or third party internet intermediaries in the markets in which we own properties;
failure to effectively execute our long-term business strategy and successfully identify and complete acquisitions;
risks and uncertainties affecting hotel renovations and management (including, without limitation, construction delays, increased construction costs, disruption in hotel operations and the risks associated with our franchise agreements);
risks associated with the availability and terms of financing and the use of debt to fund acquisitions and renovations or refinance existing indebtedness, including the impact of higher interest rates on the cost and/or availability of financing;
risks associated with the lodging industry overall, including, without limitation, an increase in alternative lodging channels, decreases in the frequency of business travel and increases in operating costs;
risks associated with natural disasters;
costs of compliance with government regulations, including, without limitation, the Americans with Disabilities Act;
potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;
risks associated with security breaches through cyber-attacks or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technologies and systems systems, which support our operations and our hotel managers;
risks associated with our potential failure to qualify as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);
possible adverse changes in tax and environmental laws; and
risks associated with our dependence on key personnel whose continued service is not guaranteed.

The risks and uncertainties set forth above are not exhaustive. Other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” discuss these and other risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements.

Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “we,” “our,” “us” and “the Company” refer to DiamondRock Hospitality Company, including as the context requires, DiamondRock Hospitality Limited Partnership, as well as our other direct and indirect subsidiaries.

PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

DiamondRock Hospitality Company is a lodging-focused Maryland corporation operating as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. As of December 31, 2018, we owned a portfolio of 31 premium hotels and resorts that contain 10,091 guest rooms located in 21 different markets in North America and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Our hotel in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Frenchman's Reef & Morning Star Beach Resort ("Frenchman's Reef"), is currently closed due to damage incurred by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017.

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As an owner, rather than an operator, of lodging properties, we receive all of the operating profits or losses generated by our hotels after the payment of fees due to hotel managers and hotel brands, which are calculated based on the revenues and profitability of each hotel.

Our goal is to deliver long-term stockholder returns, that exceed those generated by our peers, through a combination of dividends and enduring capital appreciation. Our strategy is to utilize disciplined capital allocation, focus on high quality lodging properties in North American urban and resort markets with superior growth prospects and high barriers-to-entry, aggressively asset manage those hotels, and employ conservative amounts of leverage.

Our primary business is to acquire, own, asset manage and renovate premium hotel properties in the United States. Our portfolio is concentrated in key gateway cities and destination resort locations. Each of our hotels is managed by a third party—either an independent operator or a brand operator, such as Marriott International, Inc. (“Marriott”).

We critically evaluate each of our hotels to ensure that we own a portfolio of hotels that conforms to our vision, supports our mission and corresponds with our strategy. On a regular basis, we analyze our portfolio to identify opportunities to invest capital in certain projects or market non-core assets for sale in order to increase our portfolio quality. We are committed to a conservative capital structure with prudent leverage. We regularly assess the availability and affordability of capital in order to maximize stockholder value and minimize enterprise risk. In addition, we are committed to following sound corporate governance practices and to being open and transparent in our communications with our stockholders.

Our Company

We commenced operations in July 2004 and became a public reporting company in May 2005. Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “DRH”. We have been successful in acquiring, financing and asset managing our hotels. As of December 31, 2018, we had 31 full-time employees. Since our formation, we have sought to be forthright and transparent in our communications with investors, to actively monitor our corporate overhead and to adopt sound corporate governance practices.

Our Business Strategy

Our business strategy is to utilize disciplined capital allocation, mainly focused on owning high quality lodging properties in North American markets with superior growth prospects and high barriers-to-entry, and aggressively asset manage those hotels and employ conservative amounts of leverage.

We plan to strategically allocate capital in order to create value depending on our cost of capital. If our cost of capital is attractive, we expect to:

pursue strategic acquisitions;

consider opportunistically raising equity; and

evaluate opportunities to dispose of non-core hotels.

If we believe our cost of capital is elevated, we expect to create value over the long term to stockholders by deploying investment capacity into share repurchases.

We prefer a relatively efficient capital structure and have not invested in joint ventures or issued preferred stock. We structure our hotel acquisitions to be straightforward and to fit within our conservative capital structure; however, we will consider a more complex transaction (e.g. the issuance of operating partnership units to limited partners) if we believe that the projected returns to our stockholders will significantly exceed the returns that would otherwise be available.

High-Quality Urban and Destination Resort Hotels

As of December 31, 2018, we owned 31 premium hotels and resorts throughout North America and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Our hotels and resorts are primarily categorized as upper upscale as defined by Smith Travel Research and are generally located in high barrier-to-entry markets with multiple demand generators. Our properties are concentrated in key gateway cities and in resort destinations. We consider lodging properties located in gateway cities and resort destinations to be the most capable of generating dynamic cash flow growth and achieving superior long-term capital appreciation.

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We have enhanced our hotel portfolio by recycling capital from non-core hotels, located in slower growth markets, to higher quality hotels located primarily in high-growth urban and destination resort markets. We have repositioned our portfolio through the acquisition of urban and resort hotels that align with our strategic goals while disposing of non-core hotels. These acquisitions increased our urban exposure with acquisitions in cities such as San Diego, San Francisco, Boston, Denver, and Washington, D.C. Our resort exposure increased with acquisitions in locations such as Key West and Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Sedona, Arizona, and Sausalito, Huntington Beach and South Lake Tahoe, California. Five of our last six acquisitions have been resort destination hotels. Over 90% of our portfolio EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2018 is derived from core urban and resort destination hotels. Our capital recycling program has also achieved several other important strategic portfolio goals that include improving our portfolio’s geographic, operator and brand diversity.

We are highly sensitive to our cost of capital and may pursue acquisitions that create value in the near term. We will continue to evaluate our portfolio for opportunities to continue to upgrade our portfolio by considering strategic acquisitions and opportunistic non-core hotel dispositions.

The primary focus of our acquisitions over the past eight years was on hotels that we believe presented unique value-add opportunities. In addition, we have repositioned certain of our hotels through a change in brand, comprehensive renovation and/or change in third-party hotel manager to a more efficient operator. This focus has helped us achieve the strategic goals of improving our portfolio's brand and management diversity.

We evaluate each hotel in our portfolio to assess the optimal brand and management strategy for the individual hotel and market. We leverage the leading global hotel brands at most of our hotels, which are flagged under a brand owned by Marriott or Hilton Worldwide Holdings, Inc. ("Hilton"). We also maintain a portion of our hotels as independent lifestyle hotels. We believe that premier global hotel brands create significant value as a result of each brand's ability to produce incremental revenue through their strong reservation and rewards systems and sales organizations. We are also interested in owning non-branded hotels located in premier or unique markets where we believe that the returns on such a hotel may be higher than if the hotel were operated under a globally-recognized brand.

Innovative Asset Management

We believe that we can create significant value in our portfolio through innovative asset management strategies such as rebranding, renovating and repositioning our hotels. We regularly evaluate our portfolio to determine if there are opportunities to employ these value-add strategies.

Our asset management team is focused on improving hotel profit margins through revenue management strategies and cost control programs. Our asset management team also focuses on identifying new and potential value creation opportunities across our portfolio, including implementing resort and other fees, creating incremental guest rooms, leasing out restaurants to more profitable third-party operators, converting under-utilized space to revenue-generating meeting space and implementing programs to reduce energy consumption and increase labor efficiency.

Our senior management team has established a broad network of hotel industry contacts and relationships, including relationships with hotel owners, financiers, operators, project managers and contractors and other key industry participants. We use our broad network of hotel industry contacts and relationships to maximize the value of our hotels. We strive to negotiate management agreements that give us the right to exert influence over the management of our properties, annual budgets and all capital expenditures (all, to the extent permitted under the REIT rules), and then to use those rights to continually monitor and improve the performance of our properties. We cooperatively partner with our hotel managers in an attempt to increase operating results and long-term asset values at our hotels. In addition to working directly with the personnel at our hotels, our senior management team also has long-standing professional relationships with our hotel managers' senior executives, and we work directly with these senior executives to improve the performance of our hotels.

Conservative Capital Structure

We believe that a conservative capital structure maximizes investment capacity while reducing enterprise risk. We currently employ a conservative debt profile and straight-forward capital structure with no preferred equity or convertible bonds. We maintain significant balance sheet flexibility with existing corporate cash, no outstanding borrowings under our $300 million senior unsecured credit facility, and with 23 of our 31 hotels unencumbered by mortgage debt as of December 31, 2018. We are well positioned for potential credit market volatility and uncertainty in the lodging cycle given that we have no near-term debt maturities and the majority of our debt is financed with long-term, fixed-rate mortgages with a well-laddered maturity schedule. We believe it is prudent to reduce the inherent risk of highly cyclical lodging fundamentals through a low leverage capital structure.

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We believe that our strategically designed capital structure is a value creation tool that can be used over the entire lodging cycle. Specifically, we believe that lower leverage benefits us in the following ways:

provides capacity to fund attractive acquisitions;

enhances our ability to maintain a sustainable dividend;

enables us to opportunistically repurchase shares during periods of stock price dislocation; and

provides capacity to fund late-cycle capital needs.

As of December 31, 2018, our outstanding debt consists of a combination of property-specific mortgage debt, all of which bears interest at a fixed rate, and unsecured corporate term loans. We prefer that at least half of our portfolio remain unencumbered by debt in order to provide maximum balance sheet flexibility. We expect that our strategy will enable us to maintain a balance sheet with an appropriate amount of debt throughout all phases of the lodging cycle.

Our Corporate Structure

We conduct our business through a traditional umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT, in which our hotels are owned by subsidiaries of our operating partnership, DiamondRock Hospitality Limited Partnership. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership and own either directly or indirectly 99.6% of the limited partnership units (“OP units”) of our operating partnership. The remaining 0.4% of the OP units are held by third parties. These OP units were issued in connection with our acquisition of Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate (“Cavallo Point”), in December 2018. Each OP unit currently owned by holders other than us is redeemable, at the option of the holder, beginning December 12, 2019, for an amount of cash equal to the market value of one share of the Company's common stock or, at our election, one share of the Company's common stock, in each case subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of stock splits, mergers, consolidations or similar pro-rata share transactions. As of December 31, 2018, limited partners held 796,684 OP units. In the future, we may issue additional OP units from time to time in connection with acquiring hotel properties, financing, compensation, or other reasons.

In order for the income from our hotel investments to constitute “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests required for REIT qualification, we must lease each of our hotels to a wholly-owned subsidiary of our taxable REIT subsidiary, or TRS (each, a TRS lessee), or to an unrelated third party. We currently lease all of our domestic hotels to TRS lessees. In turn, our TRS lessees must engage a third-party management company to manage the hotels. However, we may structure our properties that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax differently from the structures that we use for our U.S. properties. For example, Frenchman's Reef is held by a U.S. Virgin Islands corporation, which we have elected to be a TRS.

The following chart shows our corporate structure as of the date of this report:


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Competition

The hotel industry is highly competitive and our hotels are subject to competition from other hotels for guests. Competition is based on a number of factors, including convenience of location, reputation, brand affiliation, price, range of services, guest amenities, and quality of customer service. Competition is specific to the individual markets in which our properties are located and will include competition from existing and new hotels operated under brands in the full-service, select-service and extended-stay segments. We believe that properties flagged with a Marriott or Hilton brand will enjoy the competitive advantages associated with their operations under such brand. These global brands' reservation systems and national advertising, marketing and promotional services combined with the strong management expertise they provide enable our properties to perform favorably in terms of both occupancy and room rates relative to other brands and non-branded hotels. The guest loyalty programs operated by these global brands generate repeat guest business that might otherwise go to competing hotels. Increased competition may have a material adverse effect on occupancy, Average Daily Rate (or ADR) and Revenue per Available Room (or RevPAR), or may require us to make capital improvements that we otherwise would not undertake, which may result in decreases in the profitability of our hotels.

In addition to competing with traditional hotels and lodging facilities, we compete with alternative lodging, including third-party providers of short-term rental properties and serviced apartments. We compete based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition and supply and availability of alternative lodging.

We face competition for the acquisition of hotels from institutional pension funds, private equity funds, REITs, hotel companies and others who are engaged in hotel acquisitions and investments. Some of these competitors have substantially greater financial and operational resources than we have and may have greater knowledge of the markets in which we seek to invest. This competition may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities offered to us and increase the cost of acquiring our targeted hotel investments.

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Seasonality

The periods during which our hotels experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. Accordingly, we expect some seasonality in our business. Volatility in our financial performance from the seasonality of the lodging industry could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Regulatory Matters

Environmental Matters

In connection with the ownership of hotels, the Company is subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations relating to environmental protection. Under these laws, a current or previous owner or operator (including tenants) of real estate may be liable for the costs or removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances at, on, under or in such property. These laws typically impose liability without regard to fault or whether or not the owner or operator knew of or caused the presence of the contamination, and the liability under these laws may be joint and several. Because these laws also impose liability on the persons who owned the property at the time it became contaminated, it is possible that we could incur cleanup costs or other environmental liabilities even after we sell properties. The presence of contamination, or the failure to properly remediate contamination, on a property may adversely affect the ability of the owner or operator to sell that property or to borrow funds using such property as collateral. Under the environmental laws, courts and government agencies also have the authority to require that a person who sent waste to a waste disposal facility, such as a landfill or incinerator, pay for the cleanup of that facility if it becomes contaminated and threatens human health or the environment.

Our hotels are subject to various federal, state, and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that address a wide variety of issues, including, but not limited to, storage tanks, air emissions from emergency generators, storm water and wastewater discharges, asbestos, lead-based paint, mold and mildew and waste management. Some of our hotels routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations, which substances and wastes are subject to regulation (e.g., swimming pool chemicals). Our hotels incur costs to comply with these laws and regulations and could be subject to fines and penalties for non-compliance.

We believe that our hotels are in compliance, in all material respects, with all federal, state and local environmental ordinances and regulations regarding hazardous or toxic substances and other environmental matters, the violation of which could have a material adverse effect on us. We have not received written notice from any governmental authority of any material noncompliance, liability or claim relating to hazardous or toxic substances or other environmental matters in connection with any of our present properties.

Annually, we submit a response to the Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmarking survey (the “GRESB Report”), which benchmarks the Company's approach and performance on environmental, social and governance indicators against other real estate companies. The GRESB Report is accessible on our website. The information included in, referenced to, or otherwise accessible through the GRESB Report, is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be a part of, this report or any document unless expressly incorporated by reference therein.

ADA Regulation

Our properties must comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or ADA, to the extent that such properties are "public accommodations" as defined by the ADA. The ADA may require removal of structural barriers to access by individuals with disabilities in certain public areas of our properties where such removal is readily achievable. We believe that our properties are in substantial compliance with the ADA. However, noncompliance with the ADA could result in payment of civil penalties, damages, and attorneys' fees and costs. The obligation to comply with the ADA is an ongoing one, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate in this regard.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we employed 31 full-time employees. We believe that our relations with our employees are good. None of our employees is a member of any union; however, the employees of our hotel managers at the Lexington Hotel New York, Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue, Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East, Hilton Garden Inn/Times Square, Westin Boston Waterfront, and Hilton Boston Downtown are currently represented by labor unions and are subject to collective bargaining agreements.


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Insurance

We carry comprehensive liability, fire, extended coverage, earthquake, windstorm, business interruption and rental loss insurance covering all of the properties in our portfolio under a blanket policy. In addition, we carry earthquake and terrorism insurance on our properties in an amount and with deductibles which we believe are commercially reasonable. We do not carry insurance for generally uninsured losses such as loss from riots, war or acts of God. Certain of the properties in our portfolio are located in areas known to be seismically active or subject to hurricanes and we believe that we have appropriate insurance for those risks, although they are subject to higher deductibles than ordinary property insurance.

Most of our hotel management agreements and mortgage agreements require that we obtain and maintain property insurance, business interruption insurance, flood insurance, earthquake insurance (if the hotel is located in an "earthquake prone zone" as determined by the U.S. Geological Survey) and other customary types of insurance related to hotels. We comply with all such requirements. In addition, either we or the hotel manager are responsible for obtaining general liability insurance, workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance.

Available Information

We maintain a website at the following address: www.drhc.com. We make our proxy statements, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports and amendments are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Such reports are also available by accessing the EDGAR database on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

Our website is also a key source of important information about us. We post to the Investor Relations section of our website important information about our business, our operating results and our financial condition and prospects, including, for example, information about material acquisitions and dispositions, our earnings releases and certain supplemental financial information related or complimentary thereto. The website also has a Corporate Governance page that includes, among other things, copies of our charter, our bylaws, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the charters for each standing committee of our Board of Directors: currently, the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. We intend to disclose on our website any amendment to, or waiver of, any provisions of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that apply to any of our directors, executive officers or senior financial officers that would otherwise be required to be disclosed under the rules of the SEC or the NYSE. Copies of our charter, our bylaws, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and our SEC reports are also available in print to stockholders upon request addressed to Investor Relations, DiamondRock Hospitality Company, 2 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 1400, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 or through the “Information Request” section on the Investor Relations page of our website.

The information included in, referenced to, or otherwise accessible through our website, is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be a part of, this report or any document unless expressly incorporated by reference therein.

DiamondRock Hospitality Company is traded on the NYSE, under the symbol “DRH”.

Supplemental Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

This summary is for general information purposes only and is not tax advice. This discussion does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular holders of our securities in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances.

The following discussion supplements and updates the disclosures under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the prospectus dated August 8, 2018 contained in our Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC on August 8, 2018.

Taxation of the Operating Partnership

Previously, our operating partnership was disregarded as an entity separate from us for U.S. federal income tax purposes but since September 1, 2018, our operating partnership has been treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, the discussion under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations - Taxation of the Operating Partnership” is revised as follows:

The first, fourth and seventh paragraphs are deleted;


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The first sentence of the sixth paragraph is revised to state: “We have used and may continue to use our operating partnership to acquire hotels by issuing operating partnership units, in order to permit the sellers of such properties to defer recognition of their tax gain.”; and

The following will be inserted under the heading and thus will become the first two paragraphs in the discussion:

Before September 1, 2018, our operating partnership was a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes because we owned 100% of the interests in it, directly or through other disregarded entities. Since September 1, 2018, our operating partnership has been treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a domestic unincorporated entity with two or more partners is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless it affirmatively elects to be treated as a corporation. However, certain “publicly traded partnerships” are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We intend to comply with one or more exceptions from treatment as a corporation under the publicly traded partnership rules. Failure to qualify for such an exception would prevent us from qualifying as a REIT.

When our operating partnership became taxable as a partnership, we generally were treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as contributing our properties to the operating partnership. As a result, for our properties that were appreciated at such time, we may recognize a smaller share of tax depreciation, and a larger share of tax gain on sale, from such properties after the deemed contribution, as compared to our former percentage interest in the operating partnership.

New TRSs

In September 2018, our indirect subsidiaries, DiamondRock Cayman Islands, Inc., a Cayman Island corporation, and CPFB Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, elected to be treated as our TRSs. Generally the provisions under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the prospectus that discuss TRSs should apply to DiamondRock Cayman Islands, Inc. and CPFB Holdings, LLC, including, but not limited to, the discussion of TRS lessees as CPFB Holdings, LLC has formed such a subsidiary.

Recent IRS Guidance on Recent Tax Legislation

In September 2018, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) issued guidance clarifying that global intangible low-tax income (“GILTI”) earned by certain foreign subsidiary corporations that is included in a REIT’s taxable income is qualifying REIT income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. As a result, the fourth, fifth and sixth sentences in the second paragraph under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations - Recent Tax Legislation” in the prospectus are deleted and replaced with the following:

The IRS issued guidance that GILTI constitutes qualifying REIT income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, and thus the inclusion of GILTI earned by DiamondRock Frenchman's Owner, Inc. and DiamondRock Cayman Islands, Inc. in our U.S. taxable income should not influence our ownership structure of these foreign TRSs but no assurances can be given. The inclusion of such GILTI in our U.S. taxable income, however, could increase our dividend distribution requirement, regardless of whether we receive a corresponding distribution of cash from our foreign TRSs.

Recent FATCA Regulations

On December 18, 2018, the IRS promulgated proposed Treasury Regulations under Sections 1471-1474 of the Code (commonly referred to as FATCA), which proposed regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on gross proceeds of a disposition of property that can produce U.S. source interest or dividends and thus implicate certain tax-related disclosures contained in the prospectus. While these proposed Treasury Regulations have not yet been finalized, taxpayers are generally entitled to rely on the proposed Treasury Regulations (subject to certain limited exceptions). As a result, the discussion under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations - FATCA Withholding and Reporting” in the prospectus is revised as follows:

In the second sentence, the phrase “, and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of,” is deleted; and

The third and fourth sentences are deleted.

Recent Partnership Audit Regulations


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On December 21, 2018, the IRS adopted final Treasury Regulations under Sections 6221-6241 of the Code to implement the centralized partnership audit regime, and applicable finalized Treasury Regulations retain the ability of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership to use deficiency dividend procedures with respect to partnership adjustments resulting from a “push-out election.”

Item 1A. Risk Factors

The following risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones that we may face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we may currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be affected adversely.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

Our business model, especially our concentration in premium full-service hotels, can be highly volatile.

We solely own hotels, a very different asset class from many other REITs. A typical office REIT, for example, has long-term leases with third-party tenants, which provide a relatively stable long-term stream of revenue. Our TRS lessees, on the other hand, do not enter into leases with hotel managers. Instead, the TRS lessee engages the hotel manager pursuant to a management agreement and pays the manager a fee for managing the hotel. The TRS lessee receives all of the operating profit or losses at the hotel. Moreover, virtually all hotel guests stay at the hotel for only a few nights, so the rate and occupancy at each of our hotels changes every day. As a result, our earnings may be highly volatile.

In addition to fluctuations related to our business model, our hotels are, and will continue to be, subject to various long-term operating risks common to the hotel industry, many of which are beyond our control, including:

dependence on business and commercial travelers and tourism, both of which vary with consumer and business confidence in the strength of the economy;

decreases in the frequency of business travel that may result from alternatives to in-person meetings;

competition from other hotels and alternative lodging channels located in the markets in which we own properties;

competition from third-party internet travel intermediaries;

an over-supply or over-building of hotels in the markets in which we own properties which could adversely affect occupancy rates, revenues and profits at our hotels;

increases in energy and transportation costs and other expenses affecting travel, which may affect travel patterns and reduce the number of business and commercial travelers and tourists;

increases in operating costs due to inflation and other factors that may not be offset by increased room rates; and

changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance.

In addition, our hotels are mostly in the premium full-service segment of the hotel business, which, historically, tends to have the strongest operating results in a growing economy and the weakest results in a contracting or slow growth economy when many travelers might curtail travel or choose lower cost hotels. In periods of weak demand, profitability is negatively affected by the relatively high fixed costs of operating premium full-service hotels as compared to other classes of hotels.

The occurrence of any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Economic conditions and other factors beyond our control may adversely affect the lodging industry.

Our entire business is related to the lodging industry. The performance of the lodging industry is highly cyclical and has historically been linked to key macroeconomic indicators, such as U.S. gross domestic product, or GDP, growth, employment, personal discretionary spending levels, corporate earnings and investment, foreign exchange rates and travel demand. Given that our hotels are concentrated in key gateway cities and destination resort locations in the United States, our business may be particularly sensitive to changes in foreign exchange rates or a negative international perception of the United States arising from

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its political or other positions. A substantial part of our business strategy is based on the belief that the lodging markets in which we own properties will continue to experience improving economic fundamentals in the future but we cannot assure you how long the growth period of the current lodging cycle will last. However, in the event conditions in the industry deteriorate or do not continue to see sustained improvement as we expect, or there is an extended period of economic weakness, our occupancy rates, revenues and profitability could be adversely affected. Furthermore, other macroeconomic factors, such as consumer confidence and conditions which negatively shape public perception of travel, may have a negative effect on the lodging industry and may adversely impact our revenues and profitability.

Our hotels are subject to significant competition.

Currently, the markets where our hotels are located are very competitive. However, a material increase in the supply of new hotel rooms to a market can quickly destabilize that market and existing hotels can experience rapidly decreasing RevPAR and profitability. If such over-building occurs in one or more of our major markets, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders may be materially adversely affected. For 2019, we currently project a 2.9% increase in supply for the top-25 urban markets. We expect certain markets where we own hotels will exceed this expected average of supply growth.

We own four hotels in New York City, representing 15% of our portfolio measured by number of rooms as of December 31, 2018. For 2019, we currently project a 7.5% increase in supply in the New York City market.

We own two hotels located in Boston that represent approximately 12% of our portfolio measured by number of rooms as of December 31, 2018. For 2019, we currently project a 4.8% increase in supply in the Boston market.

Our hotels are subject to seasonal volatility, which is expected to contribute to fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations.
The periods during which our hotels experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hotel’s room revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We can provide no assurances that our cash flows will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur as a result of these fluctuations. Volatility in our financial performance resulting from the seasonality of our hotels could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

The increase in the use of third-party internet travel intermediaries and the increase in alternative lodging channels, such as Airbnb, could adversely affect our profitability.

Many of our managers and franchisors contract with third-party internet travel intermediaries, including, but not limited to Expedia.com and Priceline.com and their subsidiaries. These internet intermediaries are generally paid commissions and transaction fees by our managers and franchisors for sales of our rooms through such agencies. These intermediaries initially focused on leisure travel, but have grown to focus on corporate travel and group meetings as well. If bookings through these intermediaries increase, these internet intermediaries may be able to negotiate higher commissions, reduced room rates or other contract concessions from us, our managers or our franchisors. In addition, internet intermediaries use extensive marketing, which could result in hotel consumers developing brand loyalties to the offered brands and such internet intermediary instead of our management or franchise brands. Further, internet intermediaries emphasize pricing and quality indicators, such as a star rating system, at the expense of brand identification. In response to these intermediaries, the brand operators and franchisors have launched initiatives to offer discounted rates for booking on their sites, which could put downward pressure on rates and revenue. In addition, an increasing number of companies have entered various aspects of the online travel market. Google, for example, has established a hotel meta-search business (“Hotel Ads”) which is growing rapidly, as well as its “Book on Google” reservation functionality. An increase in hotel reservations made through Google or its competitors, such as Apple, Amazon or Facebook, may reduce the value of our franchise brands, which may negatively affect our average rates and revenues.

In addition to competing with traditional hotels and lodging facilities, we compete with alternative lodging, including third-party providers of short-term rental properties and serviced apartments, such as Airbnb, as well as alternative meeting and event space platforms, such as Convene. We compete based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition and supply and availability of alternative lodging and event space. Increasing use of these alternative facilities could materially adversely affect the occupancy at our hotels and could put downward pressure on average rates and revenues.


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The rise of social media review platforms, including, but not limited to Tripadvisor.com, could impact our occupancy levels and operating results as people might be more inclined to write about dissatisfaction than satisfaction with a hotel stay.

The need for business-related travel, and, therefore, demand for rooms in some of our hotels may be materially and adversely affected by the increased use of business-related technology.

The increased use of teleconferencing and video-conference technology by businesses could result in decreased business travel as companies increase the use of technologies that allow multiple parties from different locations to participate in meetings without traveling to a centralized meeting location, such as our hotels. To the extent that such technologies, or new technologies, play an increased role in day-to-day business interactions and the necessity for business-related travel decreases, demand for hotel rooms may decrease and our hotels could be materially and adversely affected.

Investments in hotels are illiquid and we may not be able to respond in a timely fashion to adverse changes in the performance of our properties.

Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, our ability to promptly sell one or more hotel properties or investments in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions may be limited. Moreover, the Code, imposes restrictions on a REIT’s ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In particular, the tax laws applicable to REITs require that we hold our hotels for investment, rather than primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business, which may cause us to forego or defer sales of hotels that would otherwise be in our best interests.

In addition, the real estate market is affected by many factors that are beyond our control, including:

adverse changes in international, national, regional and local economic and market conditions;

changes in supply of competitive hotels;

changes in interest rates and in the availability, cost and terms of debt financing;

changes in tax laws and property taxes, or an increase in the assessed valuation of a property for real estate tax purposes;

changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies and ordinances;

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

the ongoing need for capital improvements, particularly in older structures;

changes in operating expenses; and

federal government shutdowns, airline strikes, civil unrest, acts of God, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes and other natural disasters and acts of war or terrorism, including the consequences of terrorist acts such as those that occurred on September 11, 2001, which may result in uninsured losses.

It may be in the best interest of our stockholders to sell one or more of our hotels in the future. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any hotel property or investment at an acceptable price or otherwise on reasonable terms and conditions. We also cannot predict the length of time that will be necessary to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a hotel property or loan.

These facts and any others that would impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our hotel properties could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, as well as our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Due to restrictions in our hotel management agreements, franchise agreements, mortgage agreements and ground leases, we may not be able to sell our hotels at the highest possible price, or at all.

Certain of our current hotel management agreements are long-term.


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Our current hotel management and franchise agreements contain initial terms generally ranging from five to forty years and certain agreements have renewal periods of five to forty-five years which are exercisable at the option of the property manager. Because some of our hotels would have to be sold subject to the applicable hotel management agreement, the term length of a hotel management agreement may deter some potential purchasers and could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.

Our mortgage agreements contain certain provisions that may limit our ability to sell our hotels.

In order to assign or transfer our rights and obligations under certain of our mortgage agreements, we generally must obtain the consent of the lender, pay a fee equal to a fixed percentage of the outstanding loan balance, and pay any costs incurred by the lender in connection with any such assignment or transfer. These provisions of our mortgage agreements may limit our ability to sell our hotels which, in turn, could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.

Our ground leases contain certain provisions that may limit our ability to sell our hotels.

Our ground lease agreements with respect to the Bethesda Marriott Suites, the Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown, the Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel, the Hotel Palomar Phoenix, and Cavallo Point, as well as the ground lease underlying our annex sublease at the Orchards Inn Sedona, require the consent of the lessor for assignment or transfer. These provisions of our ground leases may limit our ability to sell our hotels which, in turn, could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. In addition, at any given time, investors may be disinterested in buying properties subject to a ground lease, especially ground leases with less than 40 years remaining, such as the Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown, and may pay a lower price for such properties than for a comparable property owned in fee simple or they may not purchase such properties at any price. Accordingly, we may find it difficult to sell a property subject to a ground lease or may receive lower proceeds from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds or are unable to sell the hotel at an opportune time or at all, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.

We are subject to risks associated with our ongoing need for renovations and capital improvements as well as financing for such expenditures.

In order to remain competitive, our hotels have an ongoing need for renovations and other capital improvements, including replacements, from time to time, of furniture, fixtures and equipment. These capital improvements may give rise to the following risks:

construction cost overruns and delays;

a possible shortage of available cash to fund capital improvements and the related possibility that financing for these capital improvements may not be available to us on affordable terms;

the renovation investment failing to produce the returns on investment that we expect;

disruptions in the operations of the hotel as well as in demand for the hotel while capital improvements are underway; and

disputes with franchisors/hotel managers regarding compliance with relevant franchise/management agreements.

The costs of these capital improvements or profit displacements during the completion of these capital improvements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

In addition, we may not be able to fund capital improvements or acquisitions solely from cash provided from our operating activities because we generally must distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, each year to maintain our REIT tax status. As a result, our ability to fund capital expenditures or investments through retained earnings, is very limited. Consequently, we rely upon the availability of debt or equity capital to fund our investments and capital improvements. These sources of funds may not be available on reasonable terms or conditions.


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There are significant risks associated with redevelopment of Frenchman’s Reef & Morning Star Beach Resort (“Frenchman’s Reef”).

In September 2017, Frenchman’s Reef closed as a result of significant damage from Hurricane Irma and, to a lesser extent, Hurricane Maria, and it remains closed. The surrounding community also sustained significant damage, and we are not certain to what extent the community will be rebuilt and restored. The damage in the community may lead to a prolonged decline in local tourism, inadequate local infrastructure, an insufficient labor pool to rebuild our hotel, and increases in the cost of both building materials and insurance. The terms of the Frenchman’s Reef management agreement permitted either party to terminate the management agreement in the event that the hotel sustained catastrophic damage, as defined in the management agreement. We terminated the management agreement, effective February 20, 2018.

We are in the process of rebuilding Frenchman’s Reef and expect the hotel to re-open in 2020. However, we have not reached an agreement with the insurance carriers on either the scope or total cost of the redevelopment. We may experience difficulty in reaching agreement with insurers and there is a risk that we do not receive insurance proceeds sufficient to cover the full cost of the redevelopment. As with any capital improvement project we undertake, this renovation is subject to cost overruns and delays, but given the project’s complexity and geographical challenges, we may be more susceptible to these risks. The occurrence of any of these or other effects could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

In the event of natural disasters caused by climate change or otherwise, terrorist attacks, significant military actions, outbreaks of contagious diseases or other events for which we may not have adequate insurance, our operations may suffer.

Seven of our hotels (The Lodge at Sonoma, Westin San Diego, Hotel Emblem, Renaissance Charleston Historic District, Shorebreak Hotel, The Landing Resort & Spa, and Cavallo Point) are located in areas that are seismically active. Five of our hotels (Frenchman's Reef, Havana Cabana Key West, Sheraton Suites Key West, Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort, and Renaissance Charleston) are located in areas that have experienced, and will continue to experience, many hurricanes. Eleven of our hotels are located in metropolitan markets that have been, or may in the future be, targets of actual or threatened terrorist attacks, including New York City, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. These hotels are material to our financial results, having constituted 72% of our total revenues in 2018. In addition, to the extent that climate change causes an increase in storm intensity or rising sea levels, our hotels, which are concentrated in coastal areas and other areas that may be impacted by climate change, may be susceptible to an increase in weather-related damage. Additionally, even in the absence of direct physical damage to our hotels, the occurrence of any natural disasters, terrorist attacks, significant military actions, a changing climate in the area of any of our hotels, outbreaks of diseases, such as Zika, Ebola, H1N1 or other similar viruses, or other casualty events, will likely have a material adverse effect on business and commercial travelers and tourists, the economy generally and the hotel and tourism industries in particular. While we cannot predict the impact of the occurrence of any of these events, such impact could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We have acquired and intend to maintain comprehensive insurance on each of our hotels, including liability, terrorism, fire and extended coverage, of the type and amount that we believe are customarily obtained for or by hotel owners. We cannot guarantee that such coverage will continue to be available at reasonable rates or with reasonable deductibles. Our Florida and U.S. Virgin Island hotels (Frenchman’s Reef, Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort, Havana Cabana Key West, and Sheraton Suites Key West) each have a deductible of 5% of total insured value for a named storm. In addition, each of our California hotels (Westin San Diego, Hotel Emblem, Shorebreak Hotel, The Lodge at Sonoma, and Cavallo Point) have a deductible of 5% of total insured value for damage due to an earthquake. Due to the damage sustained by Frenchman’s Reef as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017, we submitted a significant insurance claim. While we currently expect that insurance proceeds will be sufficient to cover all or a substantial portion of the remediation and replacement costs and business interruption at Frenchman’s Reef, this claim and the increased incidence of substantial claims due to future natural disasters may adversely impact the availability or pricing of insurance available to us.

Various types of catastrophic losses, like earthquakes, floods, losses from foreign terrorist activities, or losses from domestic terrorist activities may not be insurable or are generally not insured because of economic infeasibility, legal restrictions or the policies of insurers. Future lenders may require such insurance, and our failure to obtain such insurance could constitute a default under loan agreements. Depending on our access to capital, liquidity and the value of the properties securing the affected loan in relation to the balance of the loan, a default could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and ability to obtain future financing.

In the event of a substantial loss, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover the full current market value or replacement cost of our lost investment. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose all or

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a portion of the capital we have invested in a hotel, as well as the anticipated future revenue from that particular hotel. In that event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations secured by or related to the property. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors might also prevent us from using insurance proceeds to replace or renovate a hotel after it has been damaged or destroyed. Under those circumstances, the insurance proceeds we receive might be inadequate to restore our economic position with regard to the damaged or destroyed property.

Our results of operations are highly dependent on the management of our hotel properties by third-party hotel management companies.

In order to qualify as a REIT, we cannot operate our hotel properties or control the daily operations of our hotel properties. Our TRS lessees may not operate these hotel properties and, therefore, they must enter into third-party hotel management agreements with one or more eligible independent contractors. Thus, third-party hotel management companies that enter into management contracts with our TRS lessees control the daily operations of our hotel properties.

Under the terms of the hotel management agreements that we have entered into, or that we will enter into in the future, our ability to participate in operating decisions regarding our hotel properties is limited to certain matters, including approval of the annual operating budget. We currently rely, and will continue to rely, on these hotel management companies to adequately operate our hotel properties under the terms of the hotel management agreements. While we and our TRS lessees closely monitor the performance of our hotel managers, we do not have the authority to require any hotel property to be operated in a particular manner or to govern any particular aspect of its operations (for instance, setting room rates and cost structures). Thus, even if we believe that our hotel properties are being operated inefficiently or in a manner that does not result in satisfactory occupancy rates, ADRs and operating profits, we may not have sufficient rights under our hotel management agreements to enable us to force the hotel management company to change its method of operation. We can only seek redress if a hotel management company violates the terms of the applicable hotel management agreement with the TRS lessee, and then only to the extent of the remedies provided for under the terms of the hotel management agreement. Although several of our management agreements have relatively short terms, most of our current management agreements are non-terminable, subject to certain exceptions for cause or failure to achieve certain performance targets. In the event that we need to replace any of our hotel management companies pursuant to termination for cause or performance, we may experience significant disruptions at the affected properties and the new management companies may not meet our performance expectations, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
 
We may be unable to maintain good relationships with third-party hotel managers and franchisors.
The success of our respective hotel investments and the value of our franchised properties largely depend on our ability to establish and maintain good relationships with the third-party hotel managers and franchisors of our respective hotel management and franchise agreements. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with third-party hotel managers, we may be unable to renew existing management or franchise agreements or expand relationships with them. Additionally, opportunities for developing new relationships with additional third-party hotel managers or franchisors may be adversely affected. This, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to execute our repositioning strategy through a change in brand or change in third-party hotel manager.

A substantial number of our hotels operate under a brand owned by Marriott or Hilton; therefore, we are subject to risks associated with concentrating our portfolio in two brands.

As of December 31, 2018, 19 of our 31 hotels operate under brands owned by Marriott and three of our hotels operate under brands owned by Hilton. As a result, our success is dependent in part on the continued success of Marriott and Hilton and their respective brands. Consequently, if market recognition or the positive perception of Marriott or Hilton is reduced or compromised, the goodwill associated with the Marriott- and Hilton-branded hotels in our portfolio may be adversely affected, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Several of our hotels are operated under franchise agreements and we are subject to the risks associated with the franchise brand and the costs associated with maintaining the franchise license.

As of December 31, 2018, 13 of our hotels operate under Marriott or Hilton franchise agreements. The maintenance of the franchise licenses for branded hotel properties is subject to the franchisors’ operating standards and other terms and conditions set forth in the applicable franchise agreement. Franchisors periodically inspect hotel properties to ensure that we, our TRS lessees and management companies follow their brand standards.

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If we fail to maintain these required standards, then the brand may terminate its agreement with us and assert a claim for damages for any liability we may have caused, which could include liquidated damages. Moreover, from time to time, we may receive notices from franchisors or the hotel brands regarding alleged non-compliance with the franchise agreements or brand standards, and we may disagree with these claims that we are not in compliance. Any disputes arising under these agreements could also lead to a termination of a franchise or management agreement and a payment of liquidated damages. For example, the Company was notified by the franchisor of one of its hotels that as a result of low guest satisfaction scores, the Company was in default under the franchise agreement for that hotel. If the franchisor of that hotel elects to terminate the franchise agreement for that hotel, such termination may result in the franchisor pursuing a claim for liquidated damages. If we were to lose a franchise or hotel brand for a particular hotel, it could harm the operation, financing, or value of that hotel due to the loss of the franchise or hotel brand name, marketing support and centralized reservation system, all or any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.

Contractual and other disagreements with third-party hotel managers and franchisors could make us liable to them or result in litigation costs or other expenses.
Our management and franchise agreements with third-party hotel managers require us and the applicable third-party hotel manager to comply with operational and performance conditions that are subject to interpretation and could result in disagreements, and we expect this will be true of any management and franchise agreements that we enter into with future third-party hotel managers or franchisors. At any given time, we may be in disputes with one or more third-party hotel managers or franchisors. For example, the Company was notified by the franchisor of one of its hotels that as a result of low guest satisfaction scores, the Company is in default under the franchise agreement for that hotel.
Any such dispute could be very expensive for us, even if the outcome is ultimately in our favor. We cannot predict the outcome of any arbitration or litigation, the effect of any negative judgment against us or the amount of any settlement that we may enter into with any franchisor other third-party hotel manager. In the event we terminate a management or franchise agreement early and the hotel manager or franchisor considers such termination to have been wrongful, they may seek damages. Additionally, we may be required to indemnify our third-party hotel managers and franchisors against disputes with third parties, pursuant to our management and franchise agreements. An adverse result in any of these proceedings could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
If we were to lose a brand license at one or more of our hotels, the value of the affected hotels could decline significantly and we could incur significant costs to obtain new franchise licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
If we were to lose a brand license, the underlying value of a particular hotel could decline significantly from the loss of associated name recognition, marketing support, participation in guest loyalty programs and the centralized reservation system provided by the franchisor or brand manager, which could require us to recognize an impairment on the hotel. Furthermore, the loss of a franchise license at a particular hotel could harm our relationship with the franchisor or brand manager, which could impede our ability to operate other hotels under the same brand, limit our ability to obtain new franchise licenses or brand management agreements from the franchisor or brand in the future on favorable terms, or at all, and cause us to incur significant costs to obtain a new franchise license or brand management agreement for the particular hotel. Accordingly, if we lose one or more franchise licenses or brand management agreements, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.

Our business may be adversely affected by consolidation in the lodging industry.

Consolidation among companies in the lodging industry may reduce our bargaining power in negotiating management agreements and franchise agreements due to decreased competition among major brand companies. For instance, in 2016, Marriott acquired Starwood Hotels & Resorts, resulting in the increased portfolio concentration in the Marriott brand family (19 of our 31 hotels). We believe Marriott may use this leverage when negotiating for property improvement plans upon the acquisition of a hotel in cases where the franchisor or hotel brand requires renovations to bring the physical condition of a hotel into compliance with the specifications and standards each franchisor or hotel brand has developed.

Industry consolidation could also result in the lack of differentiation among the brands, which could impact the ability to drive higher rates in those brands. In addition, to the extent that consolidation among hotel brand companies adversely affects the loyalty reward program offered by one or more of our hotels, customer loyalty to those hotels may suffer and demand for guestrooms may decrease. Furthermore, because each hotel brand company relies on its own network of reservation systems, hotel management systems and customer databases, the integration of two or more networks may result in a disruption to

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operations of these systems, such as disruptions in processing guest reservations, delayed bookings or sales, or lost guest reservations, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, following the completion of a merger of companies, the costs to integrate the companies may be absorbed by our impacted hotel or hotels and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our ownership of properties through ground leases exposes us to the risks that we may have difficulty financing such properties, be forced to sell such properties for a lower price, are unable to extend the ground leases at maturity or lose such properties upon breach or termination of the ground leases.

We hold a leasehold or subleasehold interest in all or a portion of the land underlying nine of our hotels (Bethesda Marriott Suites, Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue, Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown, Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel, Shorebreak Hotel, JW Marriott Denver, Orchards Inn Sedona, Hotel Palomar Phoenix, and Cavallo Point), and the parking lot at another of our hotels (Renaissance Worthington). We may acquire additional hotels in the future subject to ground leases. In the past, from time to time, secured lenders have been unwilling to lend, or otherwise charged higher interest rates, for loans secured by a leasehold mortgage compared to loans secured by a fee simple mortgage. In addition, at any given time, investors may be disinterested in buying properties subject to a ground lease, especially ground leases with less than 40 years remaining, such as the Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown, which has 36 years remaining, and may pay a lower price for such properties than for a comparable property in fee simple, or they may not purchase such properties at any price whatsoever. For these reasons, we may have a difficult time selling a property subject to a ground lease or may receive lower proceeds from a sale. Finally, as the lessee under our ground leases, we are exposed to the possibility of losing the hotel, or a portion of the hotel, upon termination, or an earlier breach by us, of the ground lease, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Furthermore, unless we purchase a fee interest in the land and improvements subject to our ground leases, we will not have any economic interest in the land or improvements at the expiration of our ground leases and therefore we generally will not share in any increase in value of the land or improvements beyond the term of a ground lease, notwithstanding our capital outlay to purchase our interest in the hotel or fund improvements thereon, and will lose our right to use the hotel.

The failure of tenants to make rent payments under our retail and restaurant leases may adversely affect our results of operation.

On occasion, retail and restaurant tenants at our hotel properties may fail to make rent payments when due. Generally, we hold security deposits in connection with each lease which may be applied in the event that the tenant under the lease fails or is unable to make payments; however, these security deposits do not provide us with sustained cash flow to pay distributions or for other purposes. In the event that a tenant continually fails to make rent payments, the security deposits may be applied in full to the non-payment of rents, but we face the risk of being able to recover only a portion of the rents due to us or being unable to recover any amounts whatsoever. If we evict a tenant, we also face the risk of delay or inability to find a suitable tenant or replacement tenant that suits the needs of our hotel.

We face competition for hotel acquisitions and investments and we may not be successful in identifying or completing hotel acquisitions and investments that meet our criteria, which may impede our growth.

One component of our long-term business strategy is expansion through hotel acquisitions and investments. However, we may not be successful in identifying or completing acquisitions or investments that are consistent with our strategy. We compete with institutional pension funds, private equity funds, REITs, hotel companies and others who are engaged in hotel acquisitions and investments. This competition for hotel investments may increase the price we pay for hotels and these competitors may succeed in acquiring those hotels that we seek to purchase. In addition, the number of entities competing for suitable hotels may increase in the future, which would increase demand for these hotels and the prices we must pay to acquire them. If we pay higher prices for hotels, our returns on investment and profitability may be reduced. Also, future acquisitions of hotels, hotel companies or hotel investments may not yield the returns we expect, especially if we cannot obtain financing without paying higher borrowing costs, and may result in stockholder dilution.

Actions by organized labor could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We believe that unions are generally becoming more aggressive about organizing workers at hotels in certain geographic locations. Potential labor activities at these hotels could significantly increase the administrative, labor and legal expenses and reduce the profits that we receive. If hotels in our portfolio are organized, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.


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We have entered into management agreements with third-party managers to operate our hotels. Our hotel managers are responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at each of our hotels. From time to time, strikes, lockouts, public demonstrations or other negative actions and publicity may disrupt hotel operations at any of our hotels, negatively impact our reputation or the reputation of our brands, or harm relationships with the labor forces at our hotels. For example, a strike at the Westin Boston Waterfront negatively impacted our hotel operations in 2018. We also may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contract disputes or other events. Additionally, hotels where our managers have collective bargaining agreements with employees are more highly affected by labor force activities than others. The resolution of labor disputes or new or re-negotiated labor contracts could lead to increased labor costs, either by increases in wages or benefits or by changes in work rules that raise hotel operating costs. Furthermore, labor agreements may limit the ability of our hotel managers to reduce the size of hotel workforces during an economic downturn because collective bargaining agreements are negotiated between the hotel managers and labor unions. We do not have the ability to control the outcome of these negotiations.

Actions by federal, state or local jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Several local jurisdictions in the United States have enacted, or considered, legislation increasing the minimum wage for workers in the jurisdiction. Some of this legislation applies to hotels only. If a jurisdiction in which the Company owns a hotel adopts such legislation, then the cost to operate the hotel may increase significantly and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

The Department of Labor has proposed regulations that would have the effect of increasing the number of workers entitled to overtime. If these regulations are implemented, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Our success depends on senior executive officers whose continued service is not guaranteed, and changes in our senior executive officers may adversely affect the operation of our business.

We depend on the efforts and expertise of our senior executive officers to manage our day-to-day operations and strategic business direction. Finding suitable replacements for senior executive officers could be difficult. The loss of any of their services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We and our hotel managers rely on information technology in our operations and any material failures, inadequacies, interruptions, security failures, social engineering attacks or cyber-attacks could harm our business.

We and our hotel managers rely on information technologies and systems, including the Internet, to access, store, transmit, deliver and manage information and processes. Some of these information technologies and systems are provided by third-party vendors. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission and storage of certain confidential customer information, such as individually identifiable information, including information relating to financial accounts. Recently, a number of hotels and hotel management companies have been subject to successful cyber-attacks including those seeking guest credit card information. Moreover, cybersecurity incidents and cyber-attacks have been occurring globally at a more frequent and severe level, and will likely continue to increase in frequency in the future.

For these reasons, we and our hotel managers are subject to risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber-attacks or online fraud schemes, spoofed e-mails and social engineering efforts by hackers aimed at obtaining confidential information. If unauthorized parties gain access to such information or our vendor's technology systems, they may be able to steal, publish, delete or modify private and sensitive information for proprietary or financial gain. Although we and our hotel managers believe that we have taken commercially reasonable steps to protect the security of these systems, there can be no assurance that such security measures will prevent failures, inadequacies or interruptions in system services, or that system security will not be breached through physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, social engineering attacks and cyber-attacks. Disruptions in service, system shutdowns and security breaches in either the information technologies and systems of our hotel managers or our own information technologies and systems, including unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, could have a material adverse effect on our business operations and results, our financial and compliance reporting and our reputation.

Many of our hotel managers carry cyber insurance policies to protect and offset a portion of potential costs that may be incurred from a security breach. Additionally, we currently have cyber insurance policies to provide supplemental coverage above the coverage carried by our third-party managers. Despite various precautionary steps to protect our hotels from losses resulting from cyber-attacks, however, any occurrence of a social engineering attack or cyber-attack could still result in losses at our properties, which could affect our results of operations. We are not aware of any cyber incidents that we believe to be material or that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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From time to time, we may be subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and trading price of our common stock.

From time to time, we may be subject to litigation.  In addition, we generally indemnify third-party hotel managers for legal costs resulting from management of our hotels. Some of these claims may result in defense costs, settlements, fines or judgments against us, some of which are not covered by insurance. The outcome of these legal proceedings cannot be predicted. Payment of any such costs, settlements, fines or judgments that are not insured could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.  In addition, certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors.

Risks Related to the Economy and Credit Markets

The lack of availability and terms of financing could adversely impact the amounts, sources and costs of capital available to us.

The ownership of hotels is very capital intensive. We finance the acquisition of our hotels with a mixture of equity and long-term debt while we traditionally finance renovations and operating needs with cash provided from operations or with borrowings from our corporate credit facility. Our mortgage loans typically have a large balloon payment due at their maturity. Generally, we find it more efficient to place a significant amount of debt on a small number of our hotels while we try to maintain a significant number of our hotels unencumbered.

During periods of economic recession, it could be difficult for us to borrow money. In recent years, a significant percentage of hotel loans were made by lenders who sold such loans to securitized lending vehicles, such as commercial mortgage backed security (CMBS) pools. If the market for new CMBS issuances results in CMBS lenders making fewer loans, there is a risk that the debt capital available to us could be reduced.

An uncertain environment in the lodging industry and the economy generally could result in declines in our average daily room rates, occupancy and RevPAR, and thereby have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

The performance of the lodging industry has traditionally been closely linked with the general economy. A stall in economic growth or an economic recession would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. If a property’s occupancy or room rates drop to the point where its revenues are less than its operating expenses, then we would be required to spend additional funds in order to cover that property’s operating expenses.

In addition, if the operating results decline at our hotels that are secured by mortgage debt, there may not be sufficient operating profits from the hotel to fund the debt service on the mortgage. In such a case, we may be forced to choose from a number of unfavorable options, including using corporate cash, drawing on our corporate credit facility, selling a hotel on disadvantageous terms, including an unattractive price, or defaulting on the mortgage debt and permitting the lender to foreclose. Any one of these options could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Risks Related to Our Debt and Financing

Our existing indebtedness contains financial covenants that could limit our operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Our existing property-level debt instruments contain restrictions (including cash management provisions) that may, under circumstances specified in the loan agreements, prohibit our subsidiaries that own our hotels from making distributions or paying dividends, repaying loans to us or other subsidiaries or transferring any of their assets to us or another subsidiary. Failure to meet our financial covenants could result from, among other things, changes in our results of operations, the incurrence of additional debt or changes in general economic conditions. In addition, this could cause one or more of our lenders to accelerate the timing of payments and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. The terms of our debt may restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Our credit facility and term loans contain financial covenants that may constrain our ability to sell assets and make distributions to our stockholders.

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Our corporate credit facility and term loans contain several financial covenants, the most constraining of which limits the amount of debt that we may incur compared to the value of our hotels (our leverage covenant) and the amount of debt service we pay compared to our cash flow (our debt service coverage covenant). If we were to default under either of these covenants, the lenders may require us to repay all amounts then outstanding under our credit facility and term loans and may terminate our credit facility and term loans. These and our other financial covenants constrain us from incurring material amounts of additional debt or from selling properties that generate a material amount of income. In addition, our credit facility requires that we maintain a minimum number of our hotels as unencumbered assets.

Many of our existing mortgage debt agreements contain “cash trap” provisions that could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Certain of our loan agreements contain cash trap provisions that may be triggered if the performance of the affected hotel or hotels declines. If the provisions in one or more of these loan agreements are triggered, substantially all of the cash flow generated by the hotel or hotels affected will be deposited directly into lockbox accounts and then swept into cash management accounts for the benefit of the lenders. Cash will be distributed to us only after certain items are paid, including deposits into leasing and maintenance reserves and the payment of debt service, insurance, taxes, operating expenses, and extraordinary capital expenditures and leasing expenses. This could affect our liquidity and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

There is refinancing risk associated with our debt.

Our typical debt contains limited principal amortization; therefore, the vast majority of the principal must be repaid at the maturity of the loan in a so-called “balloon payment.” In the event that we do not have sufficient funds to repay the debt at the maturity of these loans, we will need to refinance this debt. If the credit environment is constrained at the time of our debt maturities, we would have a very difficult time refinancing debt. In addition, we locked in our fixed-rate debt at a point in time when we were able to obtain favorable interest rates, principal amortization and other terms. When we refinance our debt, prevailing interest rates and other factors may result in paying a greater amount of debt service, which will adversely affect our cash flow, and, consequently, our cash available for distribution to our stockholders. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, we may be forced to choose from a number of unfavorable options. These options include agreeing to otherwise unfavorable financing terms on one or more of our unencumbered assets, selling one or more hotels on disadvantageous terms, including unattractive prices or defaulting on the mortgage and permitting the lender to foreclose. Any one of these options could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

If we default on our secured debt in the future, the lenders may foreclose on our hotels.

All of our indebtedness, except our credit facility and term loan, is secured by single property first mortgages on the applicable property. If we default on any of the secured loans, the lender will be able to foreclose on the property pledged to the relevant lender under that loan. While we have maintained certain of our hotels unencumbered by mortgage debt, we have a relatively high loan-to-value on a number of our hotels which are subject to mortgage loans and, as a result, those mortgaged hotels may be at an increased risk of default and foreclosure. In addition, to the extent that we cannot meet any future debt service obligations, we will risk losing some or all of our hotels that are pledged to secure our obligations to foreclosure. This could affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

In addition to losing the property, a foreclosure may result in recognition of taxable income. Under the Code, a foreclosure of property securing non-recourse debt would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure even though we did not receive any cash proceeds. As a result, we may be required to identify and utilize other sources of cash for distributions to our stockholders. If this occurs, our financial condition, cash flow and ability to satisfy our other debt obligations or ability to pay distributions may be adversely affected.

Future debt service obligations may adversely affect our operating results, require us to liquidate our properties, jeopardize our ability to make cash distributions necessary to maintain our tax status as a REIT and limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

In the future, we and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt, including secured debt. Although borrowing costs have been historically low, they are expected to rise in the near-term and borrowing costs on new and refinanced debt may be more expensive. Our existing debt, and any additional debt borrowed in the future could subject us to many risks, including the risks that:

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our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest or to make cash distributions necessary to maintain our tax status as a REIT;

we may be vulnerable to adverse economic and industry conditions;

we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the repayment of our debt, thereby reducing the cash available for distribution to our stockholders, operations and capital expenditures, future investment opportunities or other purposes;

the terms of any refinancing might not be as favorable as the terms of the debt being refinanced; and

the use of leverage could adversely affect our stock price and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

If we violate covenants in our future indebtedness agreements, we could be required to repay all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity at a time when we might be unable to arrange financing for such repayment on favorable terms, if at all.

Refinanced debt could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders, as well as reduce funds available for our operations, future investment opportunities or other purposes.

Increases in interest rates may increase our interest expense.

Higher interest rates could increase debt service requirements on any of our floating rate debt, including our unsecured term loans and any outstanding balance on our senior unsecured credit facility, and could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders, as well as reduce funds available for our operations, future business opportunities or other purposes.

Hedging against interest rate exposure may adversely affect us.

We manage certain exposure to interest rate volatility by using interest rate hedging, such as swap agreements, to “hedge” against the possible negative effects of interest rate fluctuations. We may continue to do so in the future. However, hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of volatile interest rates, available interest rate hedges may not correspond directly with the interest rate risk for which protection is sought, the duration of the interest rate hedge may not match the duration of the related liability, and we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately mitigate the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations. As a result, our hedging transactions could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Related to Regulation, Taxes and the Environment

Noncompliance with governmental regulations could adversely affect our operating results.

Environmental matters.

Our hotels are, and the hotels that we acquire in the future will be, subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws. Under these laws, courts and government agencies may have the authority to require us, as owner of a contaminated property, to clean up the property, even if we did not know of or were not responsible for the contamination. These laws also apply to persons who owned a property at the time it became contaminated. In addition to the costs of cleanup, environmental contamination can affect the value of a property and, therefore, an owner’s ability to borrow funds using the property as collateral or to sell the property. Under the environmental laws, courts and government agencies also have the authority to require that a person who sent waste to a waste disposal facility, such as a landfill or an incinerator, pay for the clean-up of that facility if it becomes contaminated and threatens human health or the environment. A person who arranges for the disposal or treatment, or transports for disposal or treatment, a hazardous substance at a property owned by another person may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous substances released into the environment at that property.

Furthermore, various court decisions have established that third parties may recover damages for injury caused by property contamination. For instance, a person exposed to asbestos while staying in a hotel may seek to recover damages if he or she suffers injury from the asbestos. Lastly, some of these environmental laws restrict the use of a property or place conditions on various activities. For example, certain laws require a business using chemicals (such as swimming pool chemicals at a hotel) to manage them carefully and to notify local officials that the chemicals are being used.

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We could be responsible for the costs associated with a contaminated property. The costs to clean up a contaminated property, to defend against a claim, or to comply with environmental laws could be material and could adversely affect the funds available for distribution to our stockholders. We cannot assure you that future laws or regulations will not impose material environmental liabilities or that the current environmental condition of our hotels will not be affected by the condition of the properties in the vicinity of our hotels (such as the presence of leaking underground storage tanks) or by third parties unrelated to us. We may face liability regardless of our knowledge of the contamination, the timing of the contamination, the cause of the contamination, or the party responsible for the contamination of the property.

Although we have taken and will take commercially reasonable steps to assess the condition of our properties, there may be unknown environmental problems associated with our properties. If environmental contamination exists on our properties, we could become subject to strict, joint and several liability for the contamination by virtue of our ownership interest. In addition, we are obligated to indemnify our lenders for any liability they may incur in connection with a contaminated property.

The presence of hazardous substances or petroleum contamination on a property may adversely affect our ability to sell the property and could cause us to incur substantial remediation costs. The discovery of environmental liabilities attached to our properties could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Numerous treaties, laws and regulations have been enacted to regulate or limit carbon emissions. Changes in the regulations and legislation relating to climate change, and complying with such laws and regulations, may require us to make significant investments in our hotels and could result in increased energy costs at our properties which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Americans with Disabilities Act and other changes in governmental rules and regulations.

Under the ADA, all public accommodations must meet various federal non-discrimination requirements related to access and use by individuals with disabilities. Compliance with the ADA’s requirements could require removal of architectural barriers to access and non-compliance could result in the payment of civil penalties, damages, and attorneys' fees and costs. If we are required to make substantial modifications to our hotels, whether to comply with the ADA or other changes in governmental rules and regulations, our financial condition, results of operations and ability to make distributions to our stockholders could be adversely affected.

Our hotel properties may contain or develop harmful mold, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediating the problem.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Concern about indoor exposure to mold has been increasing, as exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic reactions. As a result, the presence of mold to which our hotel guests or employees could be exposed at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property, which would reduce our cash available for distribution. In addition, exposure to mold by our guests or employees, management company employees or others could expose us to liability if property damage or adverse health concerns arise.

Risks Related to Our Status as a REIT

We cannot assure you that we will remain qualified as a REIT.

We believe that we are qualified to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes for our taxable year ended December 31, 2018, and we expect to continue to qualify as a REIT for future taxable years, but we cannot assure you that we have qualified, or will remain qualified, as a REIT. The REIT qualification requirements are extremely complex and official interpretations of the federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT are limited. Certain aspects of our REIT qualification are beyond our control. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in operating so that we can remain qualified as a REIT. At any time, new laws, interpretations or court decisions may change the federal tax laws or the federal income tax consequences of our qualification as a REIT. Moreover, our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT.


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If we fail to qualify as a REIT and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, or otherwise cease to be a REIT, we will be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at the corporate rate. We might need to borrow money or sell assets in order to pay any such tax. Also, we would not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to our stockholders in computing our taxable income and we would no longer be compelled to make distributions under the Code. Unless we were entitled to relief under certain federal income tax laws, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT but are eligible for certain relief provisions, then we may retain our status as a REIT, but we may be required to pay a penalty tax, which could be substantial.

Maintaining our REIT qualification contains certain restrictions and drawbacks.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forgo otherwise attractive opportunities.

To remain qualified as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our stock. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forgo attractive business or investment opportunities. For example, we may not lease to our TRS any hotel which contains gaming. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely to maximize profits.

To qualify as a REIT, we must meet annual distribution requirements.

In order to remain qualified as a REIT, we generally are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, each year to our stockholders. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our taxable income, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under federal tax laws. As a result of differences between cash flow and the accrual of income and expenses for tax purposes, or nondeductible expenditures, for example, our REIT taxable income in any given year could exceed our cash available for distribution. Accordingly, we may be required to borrow money or sell assets to make distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the distribution requirement and to avoid federal corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax in a particular year.

The formation of our TRSs and TRS lessees increases our overall tax liability.

Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. Our domestic TRSs are subject to federal and state income tax on their taxable income. The taxable income of our TRS lessees currently consists and generally will continue to consist of revenues from the hotels leased by our TRS lessees plus, in certain cases, key money payments (amounts paid to us by a hotel management company in exchange for the right to manage a hotel we acquire) and yield support payments, net of the operating expenses for such properties and rent payments to us. Such taxes could be substantial. Our non-U.S. TRSs also may be subject to tax in jurisdictions where they operate.

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax to the extent that transactions with our TRSs are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. For example, to the extent that the rent paid by one of our TRS lessees exceeds an arm’s-length rental amount, such excess is potentially subject to this excise tax. While we believe that we structure all of our leases on an arm’s-length basis, upon an audit, the IRS might disagree with our conclusion.

If the leases of our hotels to our TRS lessees are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
To qualify as a REIT, we must annually satisfy two gross income tests, under which specified percentages of our gross income must be derived from certain sources, such as “rents from real property.” Rents paid to us by our TRS lessees pursuant to the leases of our hotels will constitute substantially all of our gross income. In order for such rent to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and not be treated as service contracts, financing arrangements, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. If our leases are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

You may be restricted from transferring our common stock.

In order to maintain our REIT qualification, among other requirements, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the federal income tax laws to include certain

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entities) during the last half of any taxable year. In addition, the REIT rules generally prohibit a manager of one of our hotels from owning, directly or indirectly, more than 35% of our stock and a person who holds 35% or more of our stock from also holding, directly or indirectly, more than 35% of any such hotel management company. To qualify for and preserve REIT status, our charter contains an aggregate share ownership limit and a common share ownership limit. Generally, any shares of our stock owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the aggregate share ownership limit, and any shares of common stock owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the common share ownership limit.

If anyone transfers or owns shares in a way that would violate the aggregate share ownership limit or the common share ownership limit (unless such ownership limits have been waived by our board of directors), or would prevent us from continuing to qualify as a REIT under the federal income tax laws, those shares instead will be transferred to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and will be either redeemed by us or sold to a person whose ownership of the shares will not violate the aggregate share ownership limit or the common share ownership limit. If this transfer to a trust would not be effective to prevent a violation of the ownership restrictions in our charter, then the initial intended transfer or ownership will be null and void from the outset. The intended transferee or owner of those shares will be deemed never to have owned the shares. Anyone who acquires or owns shares in violation of the aggregate share ownership limit, the common share ownership limit (unless such ownership limits have been waived by our board of directors) or the other restrictions on transfer or ownership in our charter bears the risk of a financial loss when the shares are redeemed or sold if the market price of our stock falls between the date of purchase and the date of redemption or sale.

Even if we maintain our status as a REIT, in certain circumstances, we may be subject to federal and state income taxes, which would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we may be subject to federal income taxes or state taxes in various circumstances. For example, net income from a “prohibited transaction” will be subject to a 100% tax. In addition, we may not be able to distribute all of our income in any given year, which would result in corporate level taxes, and we may not make sufficient distributions to avoid excise taxes. We may also decide to retain certain gains from the sale or other disposition of our property and pay income tax directly on such gains. In that event, our stockholders would be required to include such gains in income and would receive a corresponding credit for their share of taxes paid by us. We may also be subject to U.S. state and local and non-U.S. taxes on our income or properties, either directly or at the level of our operating partnership or the other companies through which we indirectly own our assets. In addition, we may be subject to federal, state, local or non-U.S. taxes in other various circumstances. Any federal or state taxes that we pay will reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for reduced tax rates.

A maximum 20% tax rate applies to “qualified dividend income” payable to individual U.S. stockholders. Dividends payable by REITs, however, are generally not eligible for the reduced rates on qualified dividend income and are taxed at normal ordinary income tax rates (provided that for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate taxpayers generally may deduct up to 20% of their ordinary REIT dividends that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income”). However, to the extent that our dividends are attributable to certain dividends that we receive from a TRS, such dividends generally will be eligible for the reduced rates that apply to qualified dividend income (but will be ineligible for the 20% deduction). The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay qualified dividend income, which could adversely affect the value of the stock of REITs, including our common stock. In addition, non-REIT corporations may begin to pay dividends or increase dividends as a result of the lower corporate income tax rate that is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. As a result, the trading price of our common stock may be negatively impacted.

Failure of our operating partnership to be taxable as a partnership could cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT and we could suffer other adverse tax consequences.

We believe that our operating partnership will continue to be treated for federal income tax purposes as a partnership and not as an association or as a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation. If the IRS were successfully to determine that our operating partnership was properly treated as a corporation, our operating partnership would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax at corporate rates on its net income, its partners would be treated as stockholders of our operating partnership and distributions to partners would constitute distributions that would not be deductible in computing the operating partnership’s taxable income. In addition, we could fail to qualify as a REIT, with the resulting consequences described above.

Our UPREIT structure may result in potential conflicts of interest with limited partners in our operating partnership whose interests may not be aligned with those of our stockholders.

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Limited partners in our operating partnership have the right to vote on certain amendments to the agreement that governs our operating partnership, as well as on certain other matters. Persons holding such voting rights may exercise them in a manner that conflicts with our stockholders’ interests. As general partner of our operating partnership, we are obligated to act in a manner that is in the best interests of all partners of our operating partnership. Circumstances may arise in the future when the interests of limited partners in our operating partnership may conflict with the interests of our stockholders. These conflicts may be resolved in a manner that some stockholders believe is not in their best interests.

Recent tax legislation or regulatory action could adversely affect us or our investors.

On December 22, 2017, H.R. 1, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”), was enacted. The TCJA made major changes to the Code, including a number of provisions of the Code that affect the taxation of REITs and their stockholders. The long-term effect of the significant changes made by the TCJA remains uncertain, and additional administrative guidance will be required in order to fully evaluate the effect of many provisions. The effect of any technical corrections with respect to the TCJA could have an adverse effect on us or our stockholders.

Legislative or regulatory action could adversely affect our stockholders.

In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the federal income tax laws applicable to investments in REITs and similar entities. Additional changes to applicable tax laws are likely to continue to occur in the future, and we cannot assure our stockholders that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of a stockholder. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our common stock. All stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

Provisions of our charter may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.

Our charter provides that no person may beneficially own more than 9.8% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% of the value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our capital stock, except certain “look-through entities,” such as mutual funds, which may beneficially own up to 15% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our common stock or up to 15% of the value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our capital stock. Our board of directors has waived this ownership limitation for certain investors in the past. Our bylaws waive this ownership limitation for certain other classes of investors. These ownership limitations may prevent an acquisition of control of our company by a third party without our board of directors’ approval, even if our stockholders believe the change of control is in their best interests.

Our charter also authorizes our board of directors to issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock and up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and to set the preferences, rights and other terms of the classified or reclassified shares. Furthermore, our board of directors may, without any action by the stockholders, amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue. Issuances of additional shares of stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium to the market price of our common stock or otherwise be in our stockholders’ best interests.

Certain advance notice provisions of our bylaws may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.

Our bylaws provide that (a) with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in the bylaws and (b) with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders and nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors may be made only (A) by the board of directors or (B) provided that the board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in the bylaws. These advance notice provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium to the market price of our common stock or otherwise be in our stockholders’ best interests.

Provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.

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The Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, has certain restrictions on a “business combination” and “control share acquisition” which we have opted out of. If an affirmative majority of votes cast by a majority of stockholders entitled to vote approve it, our board of directors may opt in to such provisions of the MGCL. If we opt in, and the stockholders approve it, these provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interests.

In addition, provisions of Maryland law permit the board of a corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors, without stockholder approval, to implement possible takeover defenses, such as a classified board or a two-thirds vote requirement for removal of a director. These provisions, if implemented, may make it more difficult for a third party to affect a takeover. In February 2014, however, we amended our charter to prohibit us from dividing directors into classes unless such action is first approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

We have entered into an agreement with each of our senior executive officers that provides each of them benefits in the event that his employment is terminated by us without cause, by him for good reason or under certain circumstances following a change of control of our company.

We have entered into an agreement with each of our senior executive officers that provides each of them with severance benefits if his employment is terminated under certain circumstances following a change of control of our company. Certain of these benefits and the related tax indemnity in the case of certain executive officers could prevent or deter a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

You have limited control as a stockholder regarding any changes that we make to our policies.

Our board of directors determines our major policies, including policies related to our investment objectives, leverage, financing, growth and distributions to our stockholders. Our board of directors may amend or revise these policies without a vote of our stockholders. This means that our stockholders will have limited control over changes in our policies and those changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to make distributions to our stockholders at expected levels, and we cannot assure you of our ability to make distributions in the future.

We intend to pay quarterly dividends that represents at least 90% of our REIT taxable income. Our ability to make these intended distributions may be adversely affected by the factors, risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports that we file from time to time with the SEC. In addition, our board of directors has the sole discretion to determine the timing, form and amount of any distribution to our stockholders. Our board of directors will make determinations regarding distributions based upon many facts, including our financial performance, our debt service obligations, our debt covenants, our capital expenditure requirements, the requirements for qualification as a REIT and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant from time to time. As a result, no assurance can be given that we will be able to make distributions to our stockholders at expected levels, or at all, or that distributions will increase or even be maintained over time, any of which could materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Changes in market conditions could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

As with other publicly traded equity securities, the value of our common stock depends on various market conditions that may change from time to time. Among the market conditions that may affect the value of our common stock are the following:

the extent of investor interest in our securities;

the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of our equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate-based companies;

the underlying asset value of our hotels;

investor confidence in the stock and bond markets, generally;

national and local economic conditions;

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changes in tax laws;

our financial performance; and

general stock and bond market conditions.

The market value of our common stock is based primarily upon the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions. Consequently, our common stock may trade at prices that are greater or less than our net asset value per share of common stock. If our future earnings or cash distributions are less than expected, it is likely that the market price of our common stock will diminish.

In addition, interest rates have been at historically low levels for an extended period of time. The market for common shares of publicly traded REITs may be influenced by the distribution yield on their common shares (i.e., the amount of annual distributions as a percentage of the market price of their common shares) relative to market interest rates. Although current market interest rates remain low compared to historical levels, interest rates have recently risen and some market forecasts predict additional increases in the near term. If market interest rates increase, prospective purchasers of REIT common shares may seek to achieve a higher distribution yield, which we may not be able to, or may choose not to, provide. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the returns on investment in our common stock to be relatively less attractive to our investors and the market price of our common stock to decline. Additionally, higher market interest rates may adversely impact the market values of our hotels.

The market price of our common stock could be volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss on our common stockholders’ investment.

The market price of our common stock has been highly volatile in the past, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources.

Future issuances of our common stock or our operating partnership’s common limited partnership units (“OP units”), may depress the market price of our common stock and have a dilutive effect on our existing stockholders.

We cannot predict whether future issuances of our common stock or the availability of shares for resale in the open market may depress the market price of our common stock. Future issuances or sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the issuance of our common stock in connection with future property, portfolio or business acquisitions, or the perception that such issuances or sales might occur, may cause the market price of our shares to decline. In addition, future issuances or sales of our common stock may be dilutive to existing stockholders.

Our December 2018 acquisition of Cavallo Point was partially funded by the issuance by our operating partnership of OP units, which will be redeemable by the seller at any time after the one-year anniversary of such issuance for cash or, at our election, on a one-for-one basis for shares of our common stock. Pursuant to the terms of the contribution agreement governing our acquisition of Cavallo Point, if any of the OP units are outstanding seven years after their issuance, we have the option to redeem them for cash or shares of our common stock, at our election. In the future, our operating partnership may issue additional OP units to acquire additional properties or portfolios. Such OP unit issuances would reduce our ownership interest in the operating partnership and may in the future result in dilution of our shareholders’ equity interests.

Future offerings of debt securities or preferred stock, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation and for the purpose of distributions, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

In the future, we may increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of debt or equity securities, which may include senior or subordinated notes, classes of preferred stock and/or common stock. We will be able to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings could significantly dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Preferred stock and debt, if issued, could have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend or interest payments that could limit our ability to make distributions to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other

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factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their interest.

Our growth strategy may not achieve the anticipated results.

Our future success will depend on our ability to grow our business, including through capital investments to acquire and renovate full-service hotel properties. Our growth and innovation strategies require significant commitments of management resources and capital investments and may not grow our revenues at the rate we expect or at all. As a result, we may not be able to recover the costs incurred in acquiring or renovating new hotel properties or to realize their intended or projected benefits, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We cannot guarantee that we will repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or that our share repurchase program will enhance long-term stockholder value. Share repurchases could also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and could diminish our cash reserves.

The timing and amount of repurchases of shares of our common stock, if any, will depend upon several factors, including market and business conditions, the trading price of our common stock, our cost of capital and the nature of other investment opportunities. Our share repurchase program may be limited, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice. In addition, repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program could affect our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence of our share repurchase program could cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. Additionally, our share repurchase program could diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic opportunities and acquisitions. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance stockholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, there is no assurance that it will do so and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness. Our share repurchase program may be suspended or terminated at any time without notice.

Tax protection agreements may limit our ability to sell or otherwise dispose of certain properties and may require our operating partnership to maintain certain debt levels that otherwise would not be required to operate our business.

In connection with contributions of properties to our operating partnership, our operating partnership has entered and may in the future enter into tax protection agreements under which it agrees to minimize the tax consequences to the contributing partners resulting from the sale or other disposition of the contributed properties. Tax protection agreements may make it economically prohibitive to sell any properties that are subject to such agreements. In addition, we may be required to maintain a minimum level of indebtedness throughout the term of any tax protection agreement regardless of whether such debt levels are otherwise required to operate our business.

Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments

None.


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Item 2.   Properties

The following table sets forth certain information for each of our hotels owned as of December 31, 2018.
Hotel
 
City
 
State
 
Chain Scale Segment (1)
 
Service Category
 
Rooms
 
Manager
Chicago Marriott
 
Chicago
 
Illinois
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
1,200

 
Marriott
Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel
 
Boston
 
Massachusetts
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
793

 
Marriott
Lexington Hotel New York
 
New York
 
New York
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
725

 
Highgate Hotels
Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown
 
Salt Lake City
 
Utah
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
510

 
Marriott
Renaissance Worthington
 
Fort Worth
 
Texas
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
504

 
Marriott
Frenchman’s Reef & Morning Star Beach Resort
 
St. Thomas
 
U.S. Virgin Islands
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
502

 
None (2)
Westin San Diego
 
San Diego
 
California
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
436

 
Interstate Hotels & Resorts
Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort
 
Fort Lauderdale
 
Florida
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
432

 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
Westin Washington, D.C. City Center
 
Washington
 
District of Columbia
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
410

 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
Hilton Boston Downtown
 
Boston
 
Massachusetts
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
403

 
Davidson Hotels & Resorts
Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
 
Vail
 
Colorado
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
344

 
Vail Resorts
Marriott Atlanta Alpharetta
 
Atlanta
 
Georgia
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
318

 
Marriott
Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East
 
New York
 
New York
 
Upscale
 
Select Service
 
321

 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
The Gwen Chicago
 
Chicago
 
Illinois
 
Luxury
 
Full Service
 
311

 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
Hilton Garden Inn Times Square Central
 
New York
 
New York
 
Upscale
 
Select Service
 
282

 
Highgate Hotels
Bethesda Marriott Suites
 
Bethesda
 
Maryland
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
272

 
Marriott
Hilton Burlington
 
Burlington
 
Vermont
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
258

 
Interstate Hotels & Resorts
Hotel Palomar Phoenix
 
Phoenix
 
Arizona
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
242

 
Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants
JW Marriott Denver at Cherry Creek
 
Denver
 
Colorado
 
Luxury
 
Full Service
 
196

 
Sage Hospitality
Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue
 
New York
 
New York
 
Upscale
 
Select Service
 
189

 
Marriott
Sheraton Suites Key West
 
Key West
 
Florida
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
184

 
Ocean Properties
The Lodge at Sonoma, a Renaissance Resort & Spa
 
Sonoma
 
California
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
182

 
Marriott
Courtyard Denver Downtown
 
Denver
 
Colorado
 
Upscale
 
Select Service
 
177

 
Sage Hospitality
Renaissance Charleston
 
Charleston
 
South Carolina
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
166

 
Marriott
Shorebreak Hotel
 
Huntington Beach
 
California
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
157

 
Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants
Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate
 
Sausalito
 
California
 
Luxury
 
Full Service
 
142

 
Ft. Baker Management LLC
Havana Cabana Key West (3)
 
Key West
 
Florida
 
Upscale
 
Select Service
 
106

 
Ocean Properties
Hotel Emblem (4)
 
San Francisco
 
California
 
Upper Upscale
 
Full Service
 
94

 
Viceroy Hotels & Resorts
L'Auberge de Sedona
 
Sedona
 
Arizona
 
Luxury
 
Full Service
 
88

 
Two Roads Hospitality
The Landing Resort & Spa
 
South Lake Tahoe
 
California
 
Luxury
 
Full Service
 
77

 
Two Roads Hospitality
Orchards Inn Sedona
 
Sedona
 
Arizona
 
Upscale
 
Full Service
 
70

 
Two Roads Hospitality
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10,091

 
 
_____________

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(1)
As defined by Smith Travel Research
(2)
We terminated the management agreement with Marriott, effective February 20, 2018. The hotel is currently closed as a result of the damage incurred by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017.
(3)
Formerly named the Inn at Key West
(4)
Formerly named Hotel Rex

Hotel Management Agreements

We are party to hotel management agreements for each hotel that we own. The following table sets forth the expiration date of the current term, the terms of termination of the manager by the Company, and the number of remaining renewal terms at the manager's option under the respective hotel management agreements for each of our hotels. Generally, the term of the hotel management agreements, if applicable, renew automatically for a negotiated number of consecutive periods upon the expiration of the initial term unless the manager gives notice to us of its election not to renew the hotel management agreement.
Property (1)
 
Manager
 
Terminable
 
Expiration Date of Current Term
 
Number of Remaining Renewal Terms at Manager's Exclusive Option (2)
Atlanta Alpharetta Marriott
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2030
 
Two ten-year periods
Bethesda Marriott Suites
 
Marriott
 
2022 with no fee
 
12/2025
 
Two ten-year periods
Boston Westin Waterfront
 
Marriott
 
2026 with no fee
 
12/2026
 
None
Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate
 
Passport Resorts
 
At will with fee
 
6/2023
 
One five-year period
Chicago Marriott Downtown
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2038
 
Two ten-year periods
Courtyard Denver Downtown
 
Sage Hospitality
 
At will with no fee
 
7/2021
 
None
Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2035
 
None
Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East
 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with fee
 
8/2027
 
None
The Gwen Chicago
 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with fee
 
6/2026
 
None
Hilton Boston Downtown
 
Davidson Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with no fee
 
11/2019
 
None
Hilton Burlington
 
Interstate Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with no fee
 
N/A
 
Month-to-month
Hilton Garden Inn New York City/Times Square Central
 
Highgate Hotels
 
2024 with no fee
 
12/2024
 
One five-year period (3)
Hotel Emblem
 
Viceroy Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with fee
 
12/2027
 
One five-year period
Hotel Palomar Phoenix
 
Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group
 
2020 upon sale with fee;
2023 upon sale with no fee
 
12/2027
 
One five-year period (4)
Havana Cabana Key West
 
Ocean Properties
 
At will with no fee
 
12/2026
 
Two five-year periods
JW Marriott Denver at Cherry Creek
 
Sage Hospitality
 
At will with no fee
 
5/2021
 
None
L'Auberge de Sedona
 
Two Roads Hospitality
 
At will with fee
 
12/2022
 
None
Lexington Hotel New York
 
Highgate Hotels
 
2019 upon sale with fee; 2020 upon sale with no fee
 
5/2021
 
One five-year period (3)
Orchards Inn Sedona
 
Two Roads Hospitality
 
At will with fee
 
12/2022
 
None
Renaissance Charleston
 
Marriott
 
Upon sale with fee
 
12/2021
 
Two five-year periods
Renaissance Worthington
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2031
 
Two ten-year periods
Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2026
 
Two fifteen-year periods
Sheraton Suites Key West
 
Ocean Properties
 
No
 
7/2027
 
None
Shorebreak Hotel
 
Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group
 
At will with fee
 
2/2025
 
None
The Landing Resort & Spa
 
Two Roads Hospitality
 
At will with fee;
2020 with no fee
 
12/2023
 
None
The Lodge at Sonoma, a Renaissance Resort & Spa
 
Marriott
 
No
 
12/2025
 
One ten-year period
Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
 
Vail Resorts
 
Upon sale with fee
 
12/2020
 
None
Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort
 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with fee;
2023 with no fee
 
12/2024
 
None
Westin San Diego
 
Interstate Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with no fee
 
N/A
 
Month-to-month
Westin Washington D.C. City Center
 
HEI Hotels & Resorts
 
At will with fee;
2023 with no fee
 
4/2025
 
None
____________________
(1)
We terminated the management agreement for Frenchman's Reef with Marriott, effective February 20, 2018. The hotel is currently closed as a result of the physical damage incurred from Hurricanes Irma and Maria.
(2)
Certain agreements allow for other extension rights that may be only at our option.

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(3)
Hotel manager is entitled to one five-year extension option upon achievement of a certain level of net operating income, which is significantly above current net operating income at the hotel.
(4)
Hotel manager is entitled to one five-year extension option if the manager earns an incentive management fee in both 2026 and 2027. The manager did not earn an incentive management fee in 2018.

Under our hotel management agreements, the hotel manager receives a base management fee and, if certain financial thresholds are met or exceeded, an incentive management fee. The base management fee is generally payable as a percentage of gross hotel revenues for each fiscal year. The incentive management fee is generally based on hotel operating profits, but the fee only applies to that portion of hotel operating profits above a negotiated return on our invested capital, which we refer to as the owner's priority. We refer to this excess of operating profits over the owner's priority as “available cash flow.”

The following table sets forth the base management fee, incentive management fee and FF&E reserve contribution, generally due and payable each fiscal year, for each of our hotels:
Property
 
Base Management Fee(1)

Incentive Management Fee(2)

FF&E Reserve Contribution(1)

Atlanta Alpharetta Marriott
 
2
%
(3)
25
%

5
%

Bethesda Marriott Suites
 
3
%

50
%
(4)
5
%
(5)
Boston Westin Waterfront
 
2.5
%

20
%

4
%

Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate

2.5
%

5
%

4
%
 
Chicago Marriott Downtown
 
2
%
(6)
18
%
(7)
5
%

Courtyard Denver Downtown
 
1.5
%
(8)
10
%

4
%

Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue
 
6
%

25
%

4
%

Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East
 
1.75
%
(9)
15
%

4
%

Frenchman's Reef & Morning Star Beach Resort (10)
 
3
%

15
%

5.5
%

The Gwen Chicago
 
2
%
(11)
15
%
 
4
%
 
Havana Cabana Key West
 
3
%
 
10
%

4
%
 
Hilton Boston Downtown
 
2
%
 
10
%

4
%
 
Hilton Burlington
 
1.5
%
(12)
10
%


 
Hilton Garden Inn New York City/Times Square Central
 
3
%

20
%
 
4
%
 
Hotel Emblem
 
2.75
%

15
%

4
%
 
Hotel Palomar Phoenix
 
3.5
%

20
%

4
%
 
JW Marriott Denver at Cherry Creek
 
2.5
%

10
%

4
%

The Landing Resort & Spa
 
1.5
%
 
15
%
 
4
%
 
Lexington Hotel New York
 
3
%

20
%

5
%
 
Renaissance Charleston
 
3.5
%

20
%

5
%

Renaissance Worthington
 
3
%

25
%

5
%

Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown
 
2
%
(13)
20
%

5
%

L'Auberge de Sedona
 
0.5
%
(14)
10
%
 
4
%
 
Orchards Inn Sedona
 
0.5
%
(14)
10
%
 
4
%
 
Sheraton Suites Key West
 
3
%
 
10
%
 
4
%
 
Shorebreak Hotel
 
2.5
%
 
15
%
 
4
%
 
The Lodge at Sonoma, a Renaissance Resort & Spa
 
3
%

20
%

5
%

Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
 
3
%

20
%

4
%

Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort
 
2
%

15
%

4
%
 
Westin San Diego
 
1.5
%
(12)
10
%

4
%

Westin Washington D.C. City Center
 
2
%
 
15
%

4
%
 
______________
(1)
As a percentage of gross revenues.    
(2)
Based on a percentage of hotel operating profits above a specified return on our invested capital or specified operating profit thresholds.
(3)
The base management fee decreases to 2% of gross revenues between February 2018 and January 2021.
(4)
The owner's priority expires in 2028, after which the manager will receive 50% of the hotel's operating profits.
(5)
The contribution is reduced to 1% until operating profits exceed an owner's priority of $4.4 million.
(6)
The base management fee decreased from 3.0% to 2.0% for October 2017 through September 2021 and will then revert back to 3% for the remainder of the term.

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(7)
Calculated as 18% of net operating income. There is no owner's priority; however, the Company's contribution to the hotel's multi-year property renovation is treated as a deduction in calculating net operating income.
(8)
The base management fee is a sum of 1.5% of gross revenues and 1.5% of gross operating profit.
(9)
Beginning in January 2018, the base management fee increased to 1.75% of gross revenues through the remainder of the term.
(10)
We terminated the management agreement with Marriott, effective February 20, 2018. The hotel is currently closed as a result of the physical damage incurred from Hurricanes Irma and Maria.
(11)
The base management fee increases to 2.25% for 2018 through the remainder of the term.
(12) Total management fees are capped at 2.5% of gross revenues.
(13)
The base management fee decreased from 3% to 1.5% beginning May 2016 and increased to 2.0% in May 2018 and will increase to 3.0% in May 2021 through the remainder of the term.
(14)
Prior to December 2017, the base management fee was 2.45% of gross revenues under the previous hotel manager. The base management fee increases to 1.0% for 2019 and 1.5% for 2020 through the remainder of the term.

Additional information regarding fees incurred under hotel management agreements can be found in Note 12 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Franchise Agreements

The following table sets forth the terms of the hotel franchise agreements for our 13 franchised hotels:
 
 
Expiration Date of Agreement
 
Franchise Fee
Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
 
12/2021
 
6% of gross room sales plus 3% of gross food and beverage sales
JW Marriott Denver at Cherry Creek
 
10/2026
 
6% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales
Lexington Hotel New York
 
3/2032
 
5% of gross room sales
Courtyard Denver Downtown
 
10/2027
 
4.5% of gross room sales (1)
Hilton Boston Downtown
 
7/2022
 
5% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales; program fee of 4% of gross room sales
Westin Washington D.C. City Center
 
12/2030
 
7% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales
Westin San Diego
 
12/2030
 
7% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales
Hilton Burlington
 
7/2032
 
4% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales; program fee of 4% of gross room sales (2)
Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central
 
6/2033
 
5% of gross room sales; program fee of 4.3% of gross room sales
Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort
 
12/2034
 
6% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales
The Gwen Chicago
 
9/2035
 
4.5% of gross room sales
Sheraton Suites Key West
 
2/2026
 
5% of gross room sales
Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East
 
8/2042
 
6% of gross room sales
______________
(1)
Prior to October 2017, the franchise fee was 5.5% of gross room sales. The franchise fee reverts back to 5.5% of gross room sales beginning October 2019.
(2)
Prior to August 2018, the franchise fee was 3% of gross room sales. The franchise fee increased to 4% of gross room sales beginning August 2018 and will increase to 5% of gross room sales beginning August 2019 through the remainder of the term.

Additional information regarding fees incurred under franchise agreements can be found in Note 12 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Mortgage Debt

Eight of our hotels are encumbered by mortgage debt. Additional information regarding such hotels can be found in Note 8 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Ground Leases

Ten of our hotels are subject to ground lease agreements. Additional information regarding our hotels that are subject to ground leases can be found in Note 13 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.


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Item 3.      Legal Proceedings

Litigation

We are subject to various claims, lawsuits and legal proceedings, including routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, regarding the operation of our hotels and Company matters. While it is not possible to ascertain the ultimate outcome of such matters, management believes that the aggregate amount of such liabilities, if any, in excess of amounts covered by insurance, will not have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. The outcome of claims, lawsuits and legal proceedings brought against the Company, however, is subject to significant uncertainties.

On August 13, 2018, the Company brought suit against certain of its property insurers in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, over the amount of the coverage the insurers owe as a result of the damage caused to Frenchman's Reef by Hurricanes Irma and Maria. On September 28, 2018, certain of the Company's property insurers brought a similar suit against the Company in New York seeking a declaration that the insurers do not owe the full amount of the Company's claim. Notwithstanding the litigation, the Company and its insurers continue to engage in discussions and negotiation regarding the Company's claim.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


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Part II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol “DRH”. The closing price of our common stock on the NYSE on December 31, 2018 was $9.08 per share.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the five-year cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total returns of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index (the “S&P 500 Total Return”) and the Dow Jones U.S. Hotels & Lodging REITs Index (the “Dow Jones U.S. Hotels Total Return). We believe the Dow Jones U.S. Hotels & Lodging REITs Index's total return provides a relevant industry sector comparison to our common stock's total stockholder return given the index is based on REITs that primarily invest in lodging real estate.

The graph assumes an initial investment on December 31, 2013 of $100 in our common stock in each of the indices and also assumes the reinvestment of dividends. The total return values do not include dividends declared, but not paid, during the period.http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12737954&doc=13

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Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
DiamondRock Hospitality Company Total Return

$100.00

 

$132.84

 

$89.92

 

$113.13

 

$115.82

 

$96.24

S&P 500 Total Return

$100.00

 

$113.69

 

$115.26

 

$129.05

 

$157.22

 

$150.33

Dow Jones U.S. Hotels Total Return

$100.00

 

$129.43

 

$94.00

 

$116.80

 

$124.66

 

$109.10

    
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

Dividend Information

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must make distributions to our stockholders each year in an amount equal to at least:

90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, plus

90% of the excess of our net income from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code, minus

any excess non-cash income.

We generally pay quarterly cash dividends to common stockholders at the discretion of our board of directors.

Stockholder Information

As of February 22, 2019, there were 16 record holders of our common stock and we believe we have more than one thousand beneficial holders. As of February 22, 2019, there were 14 holders of OP units (in addition to the Company).

In order to comply with certain requirements related to our qualification as a REIT, our charter, subject to certain exceptions, limits the number of common shares that may be owned by any single person or affiliated group to 9.8% of the outstanding common shares.

Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2018 regarding shares of common stock that may be issued under the Company’s equity compensation plans.
Plan Category
 
Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans (Excluding Securities Reflected in Column (a))
 
 
(a)
 
(b)
 
(c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
1,546,472 (1)
 
     — (2)
 
5,236,147
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 
 
 
Total
 
1,546,472
 
 
5,236,147
__________________________________

(1)
Includes 764,549 shares of common stock issuable pursuant to our deferred compensation plan and 781,923 shares of common stock issuable upon the achievement of certain performance conditions.
(2)
Performance stock units and deferred stock units do not have any exercise price.



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Fourth Quarter 2018 Repurchases of Equity Securities
Period
 

Total Number of Shares Purchased
 

Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Dollar Amount that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (in thousands) (1)
October 1 - October 31, 2018
 
          65,638 (2)
 
$
11.54

 
 
$
150,000

November 1 - November 30, 2018
 
 
$

 
 
$
250,000

December 1 - December 31, 2018
 
3,384,359
 
$
9.49

 
3,384,359
 
$
217,886

______________________________

(1)
Represents amounts available under the Company's share repurchase program. To facilitate repurchases, we make purchases pursuant to a trading plan under Rule 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act, which allows us to repurchase shares during periods when we otherwise may be prevented from doing so under insider trading laws or because of self-imposed trading blackout periods. The share repurchase program may be suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. On November 2, 2018, our board of directors increased the authorization under the share repurchase program from $150 million to $250 million. Our share repurchase program will be effective until November 6, 2020.
(2)
Reflects shares surrendered to the Company by employees for payment of tax withholding obligations in connection with the issuance of common stock under our deferred compensation plan.





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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data

The selected historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 has been derived from our audited historical financial statements. The selected historical financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, and the related notes contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rooms
 
$
631,048

 
$
635,932

 
$
650,624

 
$
673,578

 
$
628,870

Food and beverage
 
184,097

 
183,049

 
194,756

 
208,173

 
195,077

Other
 
48,559

 
51,024

 
51,178

 
49,239

 
48,915

Total revenues
 
863,704

 
870,005

 
896,558

 
930,990

 
872,862

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rooms
 
158,078

 
158,534

 
159,151

 
163,549

 
162,870

Food and beverage
 
118,709

 
120,460

 
125,916

 
137,297

 
135,402

Management fees
 
22,159

 
21,969

 
30,143

 
30,633

 
30,027

Other hotel expenses
 
322,713

 
302,272

 
302,805

 
317,623

 
295,826

Impairment losses
 

 
3,209

 

 
10,461

 

Hotel acquisition costs
 

 
2,028

 

 
949

 
2,177

Corporate expenses (1)
 
28,563

 
26,711

 
23,629

 
24,061

 
22,267

Depreciation and amortization
 
104,524

 
99,090

 
97,444

 
101,143

 
99,650

Business interruption insurance income
 
(19,379
)
 
(4,051
)
 

 

 

Gain on property insurance settlement
 
(1,724
)
 

 

 

 
(1,825
)
Gain on litigation settlement, net
 

 

 

 

 
(10,999
)
Total operating expenses
 
733,643

 
730,222

 
739,088

 
785,716

 
735,395

Interest and other income, net
 
(1,806
)
 
(1,820
)
 
(762
)
 
(688
)
 
(3,027
)
Interest expense
 
40,970

 
38,481

 
41,735

 
52,684

 
58,278

Gain on repayments of notes receivable
 

 

 

 
(3,927
)
 
(13,550
)
Loss (gain) on sales of hotel properties, net
 

 
764

 
(10,698
)
 

 
(50,969
)
Gain on hotel property acquisition
 

 

 

 

 
(23,894
)
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
 

 
274

 

 

 
1,616

Income before income taxes
 
90,897

 
102,084

 
127,195

 
97,205

 
169,013

Income tax expense
 
(3,101
)
 
(10,207
)
 
(12,399
)
 
(11,575
)
 
(5,636
)
Net income
 
87,796

 
91,877

 
114,796

 
85,630

 
163,377

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
(12
)
 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to common stockholders
 
$
87,784

 
$
91,877

 
$
114,796

 
$
85,630

 
$
163,377

_________
(1)
Corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 include approximately $0.8 million of costs related to the departure of our former Chief Financial Officer. Corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 include the reversal of approximately $0.6 million of previously recognized compensation expense resulting from the forfeiture of equity awards related to the resignation of our former Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 include reimbursement of $1.8 million of previously incurred legal fees and other costs from the proceeds of a litigation settlement relating to Westin Boston Waterfront.


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Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands, except for per share data)
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income per share attributable to common stockholders, basic
 
$
0.43

 
$
0.46

 
$
0.57

 
$
0.43

 
$
0.83

Net income per share attributable to common stockholders, diluted
 
$
0.43

 
$
0.46

 
$
0.57

 
$
0.43

 
$
0.83

Other data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends declared per common share
 
$
0.50

 
$
0.50

 
$
0.50

 
$
0.50

 
$
0.41


 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
Balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net
 
$
2,944,617

 
$
2,692,286

 
$
2,646,676

 
$
2,882,176

 
$
2,764,393

Cash and cash equivalents
 
43,863

 
183,569

 
243,095

 
213,584

 
144,365

Total assets
 
3,197,580

 
3,100,858

 
3,050,908

 
3,312,510

 
3,151,687

Total debt
 
977,966

 
937,792

 
920,539

 
1,169,749

 
1,031,666

Total liabilities
 
1,306,987

 
1,267,213

 
1,214,121

 
1,487,905

 
1,322,700

Stockholders' equity
 
1,882,897

 
1,833,645

 
1,836,787

 
1,824,605

 
1,828,987



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business. These statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially because of factors discussed in "Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other reports that we file from time to time with the SEC.

Overview

DiamondRock Hospitality Company is a lodging-focused real estate company operating as a REIT for federal income tax purposes that owns a portfolio of premium hotels and resorts. As of December 31, 2018, we owned a portfolio of 31 premium hotels and resorts that contain 10,091 guest rooms located in 21 different markets in North America and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Our hotel in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Frenchman's Reef, is currently closed due to damage incurred by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017.

As an owner, rather than an operator, of lodging properties, we receive all of the operating profits or losses generated by our hotels after the payment of fees due to hotel managers, which are calculated based on the revenues and profitability of each hotel.

Key Indicators of Financial Condition and Operating Performance

We use a variety of operating and other information to evaluate the financial condition and operating performance of our business. These key indicators include financial information that is prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”), as well as other financial information that is not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, we use other information that may not be financial in nature, including statistical information and comparative data. We use this information to measure the performance of individual hotels, groups of hotels and/or our business as a whole. We periodically compare historical information to our internal budgets as well as industry-wide information. These key indicators include:

Occupancy percentage;

Average Daily Rate (or ADR);

Revenue per Available Room (or RevPAR);

Earnings Before Interest, Income Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (or EBITDA), EBITDAre, and Adjusted EBITDA; and

Funds From Operations (or FFO) and Adjusted FFO.

Occupancy, ADR and RevPAR are commonly used measures within the hotel industry to evaluate operating performance. RevPAR, which is calculated as the product of ADR and occupancy percentage, is an important statistic for monitoring operating performance at the individual hotel level and across our business as a whole. We evaluate individual hotel RevPAR performance on an absolute basis with comparisons to budget and prior periods, as well as on a company-wide basis. ADR and RevPAR include only room revenue. Room revenue comprised approximately 73% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 and is dictated by demand, as measured by occupancy percentage, pricing, as measured by ADR, and our available supply of hotel rooms.

Our ADR, occupancy percentage and RevPAR performance may be impacted by macroeconomic factors such as U.S. economic conditions generally, regional and local employment growth, personal income and corporate earnings, office vacancy rates and business relocation decisions, airport and other business and leisure travel, new hotel construction and the pricing strategies of competitors. In addition, our ADR, occupancy percentage and RevPAR performance is dependent on the continued success of our hotels' global brands.

We also use EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA, FFO and Adjusted FFO as measures of the financial performance of our business. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Overview of 2018

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Key highlights for 2018 include the following:

Hotel Acquisitions. In March 2018, we acquired the 77-room Landing Resort & Spa in South Lake Tahoe, California, for a total contractual purchase price of $42 million, and the 242-room Hotel Palomar in Phoenix, Arizona, for a total contractual purchase price of $80 million. In December 2018, we acquired the 142-room Cavallo Point in Sausalito, California, for a total contractual purchase price of $152 million.

Financing Activity. On October 18, 2018, we entered into a new five-year $50 million unsecured term loan. On December 5, 2018, we drew down the full balance of the term loan in connection with the closing of the Cavallo Point acquisition.

Update on Insurance Claims

As previously disclosed, we have insurance claims resulting from hurricanes that impacted Frenchman's Reef and the Havana Cabana Key West in 2017, as well as from the 2017 wildfires in Northern California that impacted The Lodge at Sonoma. The Company is insured for up to $361 million for each covered event, subject to certain deductibles and other conditions.

Frenchman's Reef. The hotel was significantly damaged by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017 and is expected to remain closed into 2020. We submitted our insurance claim during the first quarter of 2018 and are continuing to work diligently with our insurance carriers and the U.S. Virgin Islands government to ensure the best outcome for our stockholders. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized $16.1 million of business interruption insurance income under the insurance claim.

Havana Cabana Key West. We completed a comprehensive renovation and re-positioning of the hotel in connection with the remediation of substantial wind and water-related damage from Hurricane Irma. The hotel reopened as the Havana Cabana Key West in April 2018. In July 2018, we settled our insurance claim for the property damage and business interruption for $8.3 million, net of deductibles. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized $2.1 million of business interruption income and a $1.7 million gain on the property damage insurance settlement.

The Lodge at Sonoma Renaissance Resort & Spa. In July 2018, we settled our insurance claim for smoke damage and business interruption for $1.3 million, net of deductibles. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized $1.2 million of business interruption income related to The Lodge at Sonoma.

Outlook for 2019

Although economic indicators such as GDP growth, corporate earnings, consumer confidence and employment reflect a stable U.S. economy, we expect RevPAR growth to decelerate in 2019. Furthermore we anticipate the U.S. lodging industry will be challenged by rising labor costs.
Our portfolio is weighted towards top-25 urban markets, which have experienced hotel supply increases in excess of the national average in recent years. However, we expect our resort hotels to continue to outperform the broader U.S. market, with recent repositionings driving value within the portfolio. Following $115 million of hotel renovations and capital improvements in 2018, we expect lower renovation disruption in 2019. Additionally, we continue to work closely with our hotel managers to control operating costs.
Despite anticipated deceleration, we enter 2019 with several favorable factors, including: (1) ownership of a high-quality portfolio concentrated in urban and resort locations; (2) increased internal growth from the continuation of our asset management initiatives; (3) a low leveraged capital structure relative to our peers; and (4) an unrestricted cash balance of $44 million and no outstanding borrowings on our $300 million senior unsecured credit facility as of December 31, 2018.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth certain operating information for the year ended December 31, 2018 for each of the hotels we owned during 2018.

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Property (1)
 
Location
 
Number of
Rooms
 
Occupancy (%)
 
ADR($)
 
RevPAR($)
 
% Change
from 2017
RevPAR (2)
Chicago Marriott
 
Chicago, Illinois
 
1,200

 
73.8
%
 
$
230.37

 
$
169.96

 
6.4
 %
Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel
 
Boston, Massachusetts
 
793

 
74.3
%
 
251.58

 
186.93

 
(4.4
)%
Lexington Hotel New York
 
New York, New York
 
725

 
90.5
%
 
251.84

 
227.86

 
0.0
 %
Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown
 
Salt Lake City, Utah
 
510

 
70.2
%
 
171.74

 
120.61

 
(5.0
)%
Renaissance Worthington
 
Fort Worth, Texas
 
504

 
74.9
%
 
186.66

 
139.78

 
3.2
 %
Westin San Diego
 
San Diego, California
 
436

 
81.8
%
 
193.56

 
158.35

 
(2.9
)%
Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort
 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
 
432

 
81.3
%
 
196.67

 
159.99

 
(1.4
)%
Westin Washington, D.C. City Center
 
Washington, D.C.
 
410

 
87.0
%
 
206.19

 
179.33

 
(6.2
)%
Hilton Boston Downtown
 
Boston, Massachusetts
 
403

 
88.2
%
 
296.75

 
261.71

 
5.5
 %
Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
 
Vail, Colorado
 
344

 
57.5
%
 
293.49

 
168.77

 
(14.0
)%
Marriott Atlanta Alpharetta
 
Atlanta, Georgia
 
318

 
69.5
%
 
170.35

 
118.37

 
(6.0
)%
Courtyard Manhattan/Midtown East
 
New York, New York
 
321

 
94.5
%
 
261.95

 
247.46

 
4.6
 %
The Gwen Chicago
 
Chicago, Illinois
 
311

 
82.6
%
 
255.00

 
210.53

 
23.5
 %
Hilton Garden Inn New York City/Times Square Central
 
New York, New York
 
282

 
98.0
%
 
260.20

 
254.88

 
6.8
 %
Bethesda Marriott Suites
 
Bethesda, Maryland
 
272

 
67.7
%
 
177.23

 
119.90

 
(5.7
)%
Hilton Burlington
 
Burlington, Vermont
 
258

 
81.4
%
 
187.81

 
152.89

 
6.3
 %
Hotel Palomar Phoenix (3)
 
Phoenix, Arizona
 
242

 
77.8
%
 
181.69

 
141.30

 
2.8
 %
JW Marriott Denver at Cherry Creek
 
Denver, Colorado
 
196

 
81.5
%
 
247.17

 
201.39

 
(4.9
)%
Courtyard Manhattan/Fifth Avenue
 
New York, New York
 
189

 
91.4
%
 
273.47

 
249.93

 
6.0
 %
Sheraton Suites Key West
 
Key West, Florida
 
184

 
84.9
%
 
250.68

 
212.87

 
(2.8
)%
The Lodge at Sonoma, a Renaissance Resort & Spa
 
Sonoma, California
 
182

 
71.6
%
 
304.70

 
218.02

 
7.6
 %
Courtyard Denver Downtown
 
Denver, Colorado
 
177

 
82.9
%
 
192.38

 
159.40

 
(3.5
)%
Renaissance Charleston
 
Charleston, South Carolina
 
166

 
84.1
%
 
254.60

 
213.99

 
7.1
 %
Shorebreak Hotel
 
Huntington Beach, California
 
157

 
76.6
%
 
256.29

 
196.30

 
8.8
 %
Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate (4)
 
Sausalito, California
 
142

 
57.6
%
 
450.98

 
259.85

 
0.3
 %
Havana Cabana Key West (5)
 
Key West, Florida
 
106

 
73.5
%
 
185.25

 
136.07

 
(15.9
)%
Hotel Emblem (6)
 
San Francisco, California
 
94

 
81.6
%
 
204.17

 
166.70

 
(6.6
)%
L'Auberge de Sedona
 
Sedona, Arizona
 
88

 
76.0
%
 
602.63

 
457.86

 
10.0
 %
The Landing Resort & Spa (3)
 
South Lake Tahoe, California
 
77

 
61.6
%
 
319.11

 
196.47

 
1.1
 %
Orchards Inn Sedona
 
Sedona, Arizona
 
70

 
75.5
%
 
256.70

 
193.87

 
6.0
 %
Total/Weighted Average
 
 
 
9,589

 
79.1
%
 
$
234.04

 
$
185.13

 
0.0
 %
________________
(1)
Frenchman's Reef was closed on September 6, 2017 due to Hurricane Irma and remains closed. Accordingly, there is no operating information for the year ended December 31, 2018.
(2)
The percentage change from 2017 RevPAR reflects the comparable period in 2017 to our 2018 ownership period for all hotels.
(3)
The operating statistics reflect our ownership period from March 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018.
(4)
The operating statistics reflect our ownership period from December 10, 2018 to December 31, 2018.
(5)
The hotel closed on September 6, 2017 due to Hurricane Irma and reopened in April 2018. Accordingly, the operating information reported only includes operations beginning in April 2018.
(6)
The hotel closed on September 4, 2018 for a comprehensive renovation. Accordingly, the operating information presented only includes operations through the closure date.

Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2018 to the Year Ended December 31, 2017

Revenue. Revenue consists primarily of the room, food and beverage and other operating revenues from our hotels, as follows (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
 
 
 
Rooms
$
631.0

 
$
635.9

 
(0.8
)%
Food and beverage
184.1

 
183.1

 
0.5

Other
48.6

 
51.0

 
(4.7
)
Total revenues
$
863.7

 
$
870.0

 
(0.7
)%


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Our total revenues decreased $6.3 million from $870.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $863.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease includes amounts that are not comparable year-over-year as follows:

$50.1 million decrease from Frenchman's Reef, which was closed on September 6, 2017 due to Hurricane Irma and remained closed through the end of 2018.
$0.6 million decrease from the Havana Cabana Key West, which was closed on September 6, 2017 due to Hurricane Irma and re-opened in April 2018.
$2.2 million decrease from Hotel Emblem, which closed beginning September 4, 2018 for renovations.
$8.4 million increase from The Landing Resort & Spa, which was acquired on March 1, 2018.
$18.4 million increase from the Hotel Palomar Phoenix, which was acquired on March 1, 2018.
$2.4 million increase from Cavallo Point, which was acquired on December 12, 2018.