UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☑ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-32514
DIAMONDROCK HOSPITALITY COMPANY
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
|(State of Incorporation)|| ||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
| || || |
|2 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 1400,||Bethesda,||Maryland|| ||20814|
|(Address of Principal Executive Offices)|| ||(Zip Code)|
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class||Trading symbol(s)||Name of Exchange on Which Registered|
|Common Stock, $0.01 par value||DRH||New York Stock Exchange|
|8.250% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share||DRH Pr A||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act ☑ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes ☑ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☑ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☑ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large Accelerated Filer||☑||Accelerated filer||☐||Non-accelerated filer ||☐|
|Smaller reporting company||☐||Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ☐ Yes ☑ No
The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and Directors are “affiliates” of the Registrant) as of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $1.7 billion (based on the closing sale price of the Registrant's Common Stock on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange).
The registrant had 209,552,733 shares of its $0.01 par value Common Stock outstanding as of February 24, 2023.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2022, are incorporated by reference in Part III herein.
Table of Contents
SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believes,” “project,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “strategy,” “plan,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “strive,” “endeavor,” “mission,” “goal,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.
Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:
•negative developments in the economy, including, but not limited to rising inflation and interest rates, job loss or growth trends, an increase in unemployment or a decrease in corporate earnings and investment;
•increased competition in the lodging industry and from alternative lodging channels or third party internet intermediaries in the markets in which we own properties;
•failure to effectively execute our long-term business strategy and successfully identify and complete acquisitions and dispositions;
•risks and uncertainties affecting hotel management, operations and renovations (including, without limitation, rising inflation, construction delays, increased construction costs, disruption in hotel operations and the risks associated with our management and franchise agreements);
•risks associated with the availability and terms of financing and the use of debt to fund acquisitions and renovations or refinance existing indebtedness, including the impact of higher interest rates on the cost and/or availability of financing;
•risks associated with our level of indebtedness and our ability to satisfy our obligations under our debt agreements;
•risks associated with the lodging industry overall, including, without limitation, decreases in the frequency of travel and increases in operating costs;
•risks and uncertainties associated with our obligations under our management agreements;
•risks associated with natural disasters and other unforeseen catastrophic events, including the emergence of a pandemic or other widespread health emergency;
•the adverse impact of COVID-19 or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease on the U.S., regional and global economies, travel, the hospitality industry, and on our financial condition and results of operations and our hotels;
•costs of compliance with government regulations, including, without limitation, the Americans with Disabilities Act;
•potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;
•risks associated with security breaches through cyber-attacks or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our and our hotel managers’ information technologies and systems, which support our operations and those of our hotel managers;
•risks associated with our potential failure to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);
•possible adverse changes in tax and environmental laws; and
•risks associated with our dependence on key personnel whose continued service is not guaranteed.
The risks and uncertainties set forth above are not exhaustive. Other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” discuss these and other risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements.
Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “we,” “our,” “us” and “the Company” refer to DiamondRock Hospitality Company, including as the context requires, DiamondRock Hospitality Limited Partnership, as well as our other direct and indirect subsidiaries.
SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS
The risk factors detailed in Item 1A entitled “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are the risks that we believe are material to our investors and a reader should carefully consider them. Those risks are not all of the risks we face and other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business if they occur. The following is a summary of the risk factors detailed in Item 1A:
•Our hotels are subject to significant competition and our business model, especially our concentration in premium full-service hotels, can be highly volatile, which may make it difficult to execute our long-term business strategy.
•Unfavorable market and economic conditions in the U.S. and in the specific markets where our hotels are located and other factors beyond our control, including effects on macroeconomic indicators such as U.S. gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, employment, personal discretionary spending levels, corporate earnings and investment, foreign exchange rates and travel demand, may adversely affect the lodging industry.
•We may be unable to comply with financial covenants, obtain waivers, or renegotiate such covenants under our senior unsecured credit facility and unsecured term loans, which could result in a default and potential acceleration of our indebtedness and impact our ability to make additional borrowings.
•The increase in the use of third-party internet travel intermediaries and the increase in alternative lodging channels, such as Airbnb, could adversely affect our profitability.
•The decrease in business-related travel, both generally and as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our profitability.
•Due to restrictions in our hotel management agreements, franchise agreements, mortgage agreements and ground leases, we may not be able to sell our hotels at the highest possible price, or at all.
•We may be subject to unknown or contingent liabilities related to hotels we currently own, as well as hotels that we have sold or may acquire in the future, for, among other things, uninsured losses and environmental contamination.
•We are susceptible to delays in completing ongoing or future renovations and capital improvements due to potential lack of funding for such expenditures, disruptions in the supply of materials or products and the inability of contractors to perform on a timely basis, or at all.
•Several of our hotels are operated under franchise agreements and we are subject to the risks associated with the franchise brand and the costs associated with maintaining the franchise license, as well as risks associated with concentrating the majority of our portfolio under the Marriott and Hilton brands.
•Our results of operations are highly dependent on the management of our hotel properties by third-party hotel management companies.
•COVID-19 has caused, and COVID-19 or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease could continue to cause, severe disruption in the U.S., regional and global economies, travel and the hospitality industry and could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
•High interest rates and/or the unavailability of certain types of financing could make it difficult for us to finance or refinance properties and adversely impact the amounts, sources and costs of capital available to us in the future.
•The terms of the agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness may limit our financial and operating activities and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and may also adversely affect our ability to incur additional debt to fund future needs.
•Failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT would have significant adverse consequences to the value of our common stock.
•Natural disasters caused by climate change or otherwise, terrorist attacks, active shooter attacks, significant military actions, outbreaks of contagious diseases, pandemics, or other widespread health emergencies may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
•We depend on senior executive officers whose continued service is not guaranteed, and changes in our senior executive officers may adversely affect the operation of our business.
•We and our hotel managers rely on information technology in our operations and any material failures, inadequacies, interruptions, security failures, social engineering attacks or cyber-attacks of our or our hotel managers’ information technologies and systems could harm our business.
•Even if we maintain our status as a REIT, in certain circumstances, we may be subject to federal and state income taxes, which would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
•We may be subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and trading price of our common stock and our 8.250% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”).
•We must comply with applicable governmental regulations, including, without limitation, the Americans with Disabilities Act, which could be costly.
•The ability of our stockholders to control our policies and effect a change of control of our company is limited by certain provisions of our charter, our bylaws and by Maryland law.
•We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to make distributions to our stockholders at expected levels, and we cannot assure you of our ability to make distributions in the future.
This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements beginning on page 4.
Item 1. Business
DiamondRock Hospitality Company is a lodging-focused Maryland corporation operating as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As of December 31, 2022, we owned a portfolio of 35 premium hotels and resorts that contain 9,607 guest rooms located in 24 different markets in the United States. The markets that we target are those that we believe align with our strategic objectives, which include investing in assets in destination markets with constrained supply trends, geographic diversity relative to our existing portfolio, and those markets that are considered to have high growth potential.
As an owner, rather than an operator, of lodging properties, we receive all of the operating profits or losses generated by our hotels after the payment of fees due to hotel managers and hotel brands, which are calculated based on the revenues and profitability of each hotel.
Our strategy is to apply aggressive asset management, prudent financial strategy, and disciplined capital allocation to high quality lodging properties in North American urban and resort markets with superior growth prospects and high barriers-to-entry. Our goal is to deliver long-term stockholder returns that exceed those generated by our peers through a combination of dividends and enduring capital appreciation.
Our primary business is to acquire, own, renovate and asset manage premium hotel properties in the United States. Our portfolio is concentrated in major urban market cities and destination resort locations. All of our hotels are managed by a third party—either an independent operator or a brand operator, such as Marriott International, Inc. (“Marriott”).
We critically evaluate each of our hotels to ensure that we own a portfolio of hotels that conforms to our vision, supports our mission and corresponds with our strategy. On a regular basis, we analyze our portfolio to identify opportunities to invest capital in certain projects or market non-core assets for sale in order to increase our portfolio quality. We are committed to a conservative capital structure with prudent leverage. We regularly assess the availability and affordability of capital in order to maximize stockholder value and minimize enterprise risk. In addition, we are committed to following sound corporate governance practices and to being open and transparent in our communications with our stockholders.
We commenced operations in July 2004 and became a public reporting company in May 2005. Our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbols “DRH” and “DRH Pr A”, respectively. We have historically been successful in acquiring, financing and managing our hotels.
Our Business Strategy
Our strategy is to apply aggressive asset management, conservative leverage, and disciplined capital allocation to high quality lodging properties in North American urban and resort markets with superior growth prospects and high barriers-to-entry.
We plan to strategically allocate capital in order to create value depending on our cost of capital. If our cost of capital is attractive, we expect to:
•pursue strategic acquisitions in line with our target asset type;
•consider opportunistically raising equity; and
•evaluate opportunities to dispose of non-core hotels.
If we believe our cost of capital is elevated, we expect to create value over the long term to stockholders by deploying investment capacity into share repurchases.
We prefer a relatively efficient capital structure. We structure our hotel investments to be straightforward and to fit within our conservative capital structure; however, we will consider a more complex transaction (e.g. the issuance of operating partnership units to limited partners or entry into a joint venture) if we believe that the projected returns to our stockholders will significantly exceed the returns that would otherwise be available.
High-Quality Urban and Destination Resort Hotels
As of December 31, 2022, we owned 35 premium hotels and resorts throughout the United States. Our hotels and resorts are primarily categorized as luxury and upper upscale as defined by STR, Inc. and are generally located in high barrier-to-entry markets with multiple demand generators. Our portfolio is composed primarily of hotels and resorts located in popular leisure destinations and major urban markets. We consider lodging properties located in major urban markets and resort destinations to be the most capable of generating dynamic cash flow growth and achieving superior long-term capital appreciation.
We have enhanced our hotel portfolio over the past several years by recycling capital from non-core hotels, located in slower growth markets, to higher quality hotels located primarily in urban and destination resort markets. We have repositioned our portfolio through the acquisition of urban and resort hotels that align with our strategic goals while disposing of non-core hotels. Our exposure to resorts and urban lifestyle hotels continued to increase in 2022 with acquisitions in locations such as Marathon, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Austin, Texas. Over 98% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022 is derived from core urban and resort destination hotels. Our capital recycling program has also achieved several other important strategic portfolio goals that include improving our portfolio’s geographic, climate, operator and brand diversity.
We are highly sensitive to our cost of capital and may pursue acquisitions that create value in the near term. We will continue to evaluate our portfolio for opportunities to upgrade our portfolio by considering strategic acquisitions and opportunistic non-core hotel dispositions.
Our acquisition strategy focuses primarily on hotels that we believe present unique value-add opportunities. In addition, we have repositioned certain of our hotels through a change in brand, comprehensive renovation and/or change in third-party hotel manager to a more efficient operator. This focus has helped us achieve the strategic goals of improving our portfolio's brand and management diversity.
We evaluate each hotel in our portfolio to assess the optimal brand and management strategy for the individual hotel and market. We leverage the leading global hotel brands at many of our hotels, which are flagged under a brand owned by Marriott, Hilton Worldwide Holdings, Inc. (“Hilton”) or IHG Hotels & Resorts (“IHG”). We also maintain a portion of our hotels as independent lifestyle hotels. We believe that premier global hotel brands create significant value for certain hotels as a result of each brand's ability to produce incremental revenue through their strong reservation and rewards systems and sales organizations. We are also interested in owning independent or non-branded hotels located in premier or unique markets where we believe that the returns on such a hotel may be higher than if the hotel were operated under a globally-recognized brand.
Innovative Asset Management
We believe that we can create significant value in our portfolio through innovative asset management strategies such as rebranding, renovating and repositioning our hotels. We completed rebrandings at four of our hotels in 2021 and 2022 and are currently completing rebrandings and renovations at two additional hotels. We regularly evaluate our portfolio to determine if there are additional opportunities to employ these value-add strategies.
Our asset management team is focused on improving hotel profit margins through revenue management strategies and cost control programs. Our asset management team also focuses on identifying new and potential value creation opportunities across our portfolio, including implementing resort or amenity fees, creating incremental guest rooms, leasing out restaurants to more profitable third-party operators, converting underutilized space to revenue-generating meeting space, marketing underutilized midweek bookings and implementing programs to reduce energy consumption and increase labor efficiency.
Our senior management team has established a broad network of hotel industry contacts and relationships, including relationships with hotel owners, financiers, operators, project managers and contractors and other key industry participants. We
use our broad network of hotel industry contacts and relationships to maximize the value of our hotels. We strive to negotiate management agreements that give us the right to exert influence over the management of our properties, annual budgets and all capital expenditures (all, to the extent permitted under the REIT rules), and then to use those rights to continually monitor and improve the performance of our properties. We cooperatively partner with our hotel managers in an attempt to increase operating results and long-term asset values at our hotels. In addition to working directly with the personnel at our hotels, our senior management team also has long-standing professional relationships with our hotel managers' senior executives, and we work directly with these senior executives to improve the performance of our hotels.
Conservative Capital Structure
We believe that a conservative capital structure maximizes investment capacity while reducing enterprise risk. We currently employ a conservative debt profile with prudent leverage. We maintain balance sheet flexibility with our existing corporate cash, limited near-term debt maturities, capacity under our senior unsecured credit facility and 31 of our 35 hotels unencumbered by mortgage debt as of December 31, 2022. We believe it is prudent to reduce the inherent risk of highly cyclical lodging fundamentals through a low leverage capital structure. Over time, we intend to finance our long-term growth with issuances of common and preferred equity securities and debt financings having staggered maturities. We may also consider entering into joint ventures or alliances with one or more third parties to pursue attractive investment opportunities.
We believe that our strategically designed capital structure is a value creation tool that can be used over the entire lodging cycle. Specifically, we believe that lower leverage benefits us in the following ways:
•provides capacity to fund attractive acquisitions;
•enhances our ability to maintain a sustainable dividend;
•enables us to opportunistically repurchase shares during periods of stock price dislocation; and
•provides capacity to fund late-cycle capital needs.
As of December 31, 2022, our outstanding debt consists of a combination of unsecured term loans and fixed-rate property-specific mortgage debt. We prefer that a significant portion of our portfolio remain unencumbered by debt in order to provide maximum balance sheet flexibility. We expect that our strategy will enable us to maintain a balance sheet with an appropriate amount of debt throughout all phases of the lodging cycle.
Created in 2014, our Corporate Responsibility program incorporates governance, environmental, and social initiatives in our overall business strategy, investment decisions and asset management strategies. Our Corporate Responsibility program is guided by executive and board-level oversight, with the board’s Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee assigned to oversee the policies, strategy, and implementation of the program. In 2022, as a result of our commitment to sustainability, we were ranked first in sustainability performance as the America’s Regional Sector Leader for Hotels by the GRESB Real Estate Assessment.
We are committed to transparent reporting of our environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) initiatives. In December 2022, we published our most recent annual Corporate Responsibility Report, which includes ESG policies, environmental and social programs, historic results and performance targets. The annual Corporate Responsibility Report is prepared in accordance with relevant international standards and best practices, including the Sustainable Accounting Standards Board (“SASB”) (now The Value Reporting Foundation) for the Real Estate Sector.
Accounting metrics and disclosures for the real estate industry are provided by the SASB, which publishes the Real Estate Sustainability Accounting Standard. This standard advises that total energy consumed (“Total Energy Consumption”) and total water withdrawn (“Total Water Consumption”) are the metrics that best correspond with the real estate industry. The water and energy data we use is first gathered from utility statements and then reviewed, aggregated, and analyzed by third-parties.
Beginning in 2021, we engaged an independent third party to verify our energy and water consumption data. The following charts display our Total Energy Consumption and Total Water Consumption for 2020 and 2021, the last fiscal year for which data is available. These metrics relate to our hotels owned for the entire year presented. In 2020, total consumption of both energy and water was significantly reduced due to the historically low occupancy levels at our hotels as a result of COVID-19 pandemic.
We display key metrics, documents, programs and policies through the Global Reporting Initiative (“GRI”) Index, and in accordance with the GRI framework. We also display disclosures in accordance with the framework established by the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures.
Annually, we submit a response to the GRESB survey (the “GRESB Report”), which benchmarks our approach and performance on ESG indicators against other real estate companies. The GRESB Report is accessible on our website. The information included in, referenced to, or otherwise accessible through the GRESB Report, is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be a part of, this report or any document unless expressly incorporated by reference therein.
For more information on our Corporate Responsibility program, as well as our enterprise-wide policies, please see our current Corporate Responsibility Report available at https://investor.drhc.com/sustainability-report. The information included in, referenced to, or otherwise accessible through our website, is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be part of, this report or any document unless expressly incorporated by reference therein.
Our Corporate Structure
We conduct our business through a traditional umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT, in which our hotels are owned by subsidiaries of our operating partnership, DiamondRock Hospitality Limited Partnership. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership and own either directly or indirectly 99.7% of the limited partnership units (“common OP units”) of our operating partnership. The remaining 0.3% of the common OP units are held by third parties and executive officers of the Company. A portion of our common OP units were issued in connection with our acquisition of Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate (“Cavallo Point”) in December 2018. Each common OP unit currently owned by holders other than us is redeemable, at the option of the holder, for an amount of cash equal to the market value of one share of our common stock or, at our election, one share of our common stock, in each case subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of stock splits, mergers, consolidations or similar pro-rata share transactions. As of December 31, 2022, limited partners held 719,542 common OP units. In the future, we may issue additional common OP units from time to time in connection with acquiring hotel properties, financing, compensation, or other reasons.
In order for the income from our hotel investments to constitute “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests required for REIT qualification, we must lease each of our hotels to a wholly-owned subsidiary of our taxable REIT subsidiary, or TRS (each, a TRS lessee), or to an unrelated third party. In turn, our TRS lessees must engage a third-party management company to manage the hotels. As of December 31, 2022, we leased all of our hotels to TRS lessees, except for one hotel that is directly owned by a TRS.
The following chart shows our corporate structure as of the date of this report:
The hotel industry is highly competitive and our hotels are subject to competition from other hotels for guests. Competition is based on a number of factors, including convenience of location, reputation, brand affiliation, price, range of services, guest amenities, and quality of customer service. Competition is specific to the individual markets in which our properties are located and will include competition from existing and new hotels operated under brands in the full-service, select-service and extended-stay segments. We believe that properties flagged with a Marriott, Hilton or IHG brand will enjoy the competitive advantages associated with their operations under such brand. These global brands' reservation systems and national advertising, marketing and promotional services combined with strong management by third-party operators enable our properties to perform favorably in terms of both occupancy and room rates relative to other brands and non-branded hotels. The guest loyalty programs operated by these global brands generate repeat guest business that might otherwise go to competing hotels. Increased competition may have a material adverse effect on occupancy, Average Daily Rate (or ADR) and Revenue per Available Room (or RevPAR), or may require us to make capital improvements that we otherwise would not undertake, which may result in decreases in the profitability of our hotels.
In addition to competing with traditional hotels and lodging facilities, we compete with alternative lodging, including third-party providers of short-term rental properties and serviced apartments. We compete based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition and supply and availability of alternative lodging.
We face competition for the acquisition of hotels from institutional pension funds, private equity funds, REITs, hotel companies and others who are engaged in hotel acquisitions and investments. Some of these competitors have substantially greater financial and operational resources than we have and may have greater knowledge of the markets in which we seek to invest. This competition may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities offered to us and increase the cost of acquiring our targeted hotel investments.
The periods during which our hotels experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. Accordingly, we expect some seasonality in our business. Volatility in our financial performance from the seasonality of the lodging industry could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance with various governmental regulations has an impact on our business, including our capital expenditures, earnings and competitive position, which can be material. We incur costs to monitor and take actions to comply with governmental regulations that are applicable to our business, which include, among others, federal securities laws and regulations, applicable stock exchange requirements, REIT and other tax laws and regulations, environmental and health and safety laws and regulations, local zoning, usage and other regulations relating to real property and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
See “Item 1A – Risk Factors” for a discussion of material risks to us, including, to the extent material, to our competitive position, relating to governmental regulations, and see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” together with our consolidated financial statements, including the related notes included therein, for a discussion of material information relevant to an assessment of our financial condition and results of operations, including, to the extent material, the effects that compliance with governmental regulations may have upon our capital expenditures and earnings.
Employees and Human Capital
As of December 31, 2022, we employed 30 full-time employees. We believe that our relations with our employees are good. None of our employees is a member of any union. During 2022, all employees involved in the day-to-day operation of our hotels were employed by third-party management companies engaged pursuant to hotel management agreements. The employees of our hotel managers at the Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue, Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East, Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central, Westin Boston Seaport District and Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall are currently represented by labor unions and are subject to collective bargaining agreements.
We believe prioritizing employee well-being is a key element for attracting and retaining the best and most talented associates. Our key human capital management objectives are to attract, recruit, hire, develop and promote a deep and diverse bench of talent that translates into a strong and successful workforce. To support these objectives, our human resources programs are designed to develop talent to prepare them for the critical roles and leadership positions for the future; reward and support employees through competitive pay and benefit programs; enhance our culture through efforts to foster, promote, and preserve a culture of diversity and inclusion; and evolve and invest in technology, tools, and resources to enable employees at work.
We carry comprehensive liability, fire, extended coverage, windstorm, business interruption and rental loss insurance covering all of the properties in our portfolio. In addition, we carry earthquake and terrorism insurance on our properties in an amount and with deductibles which we believe are commercially reasonable. We do not carry insurance for generally uninsured losses such as loss from riots, war or acts of God. Certain of the properties in our portfolio are located in areas known to be seismically active or subject to hurricanes and we believe that we have appropriate insurance for those risks, although they are subject to higher deductibles than ordinary property insurance.
Most of our hotel management agreements and mortgage agreements require that we obtain and maintain property insurance, business interruption insurance, flood insurance, earthquake insurance (if the hotel is located in an “earthquake prone zone” as determined by the U.S. Geological Survey) and other customary types of insurance related to hotels. We comply with all such requirements. In addition, either we or the hotel manager are responsible for obtaining general liability insurance, workers' compensation and employer's liability insurance.
We maintain a website at the following address: www.drhc.com. We make our proxy statements, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”),
available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports and amendments are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Such reports are also available by accessing the EDGAR database on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
Our website is also a key source of important information about us. We post to the Investor Relations section of our website important information about our business, our operating results and our financial condition and prospects, including, for example, information about material acquisitions and dispositions, our earnings releases and certain supplemental financial information related or complimentary thereto. The website also has a Corporate Governance page that includes, among other things, copies of our charter, our bylaws, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the charters for each standing committee of our Board of Directors: currently, the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. We intend to disclose on our website any amendment to, or waiver of, any provisions of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that apply to any of our directors, executive officers or senior financial officers that would otherwise be required to be disclosed under the rules of the SEC or the NYSE. Copies of our charter, our bylaws, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and our SEC reports are also available in print to stockholders upon request addressed to Investor Relations, DiamondRock Hospitality Company, 2 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 1400, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 or through the “Information Request” section on the Investor Relations page of our website.
The information included in, referenced to, or otherwise accessible through our website, is not incorporated by reference in, or considered to be a part of, this report or any document unless expressly incorporated by reference therein.
DiamondRock Hospitality Company is traded on the NYSE under the symbols “DRH” and “DRH Pr A.”
Supplemental Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following discussion supplements and updates the disclosure under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the prospectus dated August 6, 2021 contained in our Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC on August 6, 2021 (such disclosure, the “Base Disclosure”). Capitalized terms used in this section that are not otherwise defined shall have the same meaning as when used in the Base Disclosure.
On December 29, 2022, the IRS promulgated final Treasury Regulations under Sections 897, 1441, 1445, and 1446 of the Code that were, in part, intended to coordinate various withholding regimes for non-U.S. stockholders. The new Treasury Regulations provide that:
i.The withholding rules applicable to ordinary REIT dividends paid to a non-U.S. stockholder (generally, a 30% rate of withholding on gross amounts unless otherwise reduced by treaty or effectively connected with such non-U.S. stockholder’s trade or business within the United States and proper certifications are provided) apply to (a) that portion of any distribution paid by us that is not designated as a capital gain dividend, a return of basis or a distribution in excess of the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in its stock that is treated as gain from the disposition of such stock and (b) any portion of a capital gain dividend paid by us that is not treated as gain attributable to the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest by reason of the recipient not owning more than 10% of a class of our stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market during the one-year period ending on the date of the capital gain dividend.
ii.The withholding rules under FIRPTA apply to a distribution paid by us in excess of a non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in our stock, unless the interest in our stock is not a United States real property interest (for example, because we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity) or the distribution is paid to a “withholding qualified holder.” A “withholding qualified holder” means a qualified holder (as defined below) and a foreign partnership all of the interests of which are held by qualified holders, including through one or more partnerships.
iii.The withholding rules under FIRPTA apply to any portion of a capital gain dividend paid to a non-U.S. stockholder that is attributable to the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest, unless it is paid to a withholding qualified holder.
In the case of FIRPTA Withholding under clause (ii) above, the applicable withholding rate is currently 15%, and in the case of FIRPTA Withholding under clause (iii) above, the withholding rate is currently 21%. For purposes of FIRPTA Withholding under clause (iii), whether a capital gain dividend is attributable to the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest is determined taking into account the general exception from FIRPTA distribution treatment for distributions paid to certain non-U.S. stockholders under which any distribution paid by us to a non-U.S. stockholder with respect to any class of stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States is not treated as gain
recognized from the sale or exchange of a United States real property interest if such non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such distribution. To the extent inconsistent, these Treasury Regulations supersede the discussion on withholding contained in the Base Disclosure under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders Holding Capital Stock.” However, if, notwithstanding these Treasury Regulations, we encounter difficulties in properly characterizing a distribution for purposes of the withholding rules, we may decide to withhold on such distribution at the highest possible U.S. federal withholding rate that we determine could apply.
Additionally, the first sentence of the seventh paragraph under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders Holding Capital Stock—Distributions” is hereby deleted and replaced with the following:
Distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder that we designate as capital gain dividends but that are not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of United States real property interests (and thus not subject to FIRPTA Withholding) will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation if (i) the capital gain dividend is effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s United States trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain and may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a non-U.S. corporation, or (ii) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and meets certain other criteria, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will incur a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains derived from sources within the United States for the taxable year.
The new Treasury Regulations also provide new guidance regarding qualified foreign pension funds. Accordingly, the second paragraph under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders Holding Capital Stock—Special FIRPTA Rules” is hereby deleted and replaced with the following:
Generally, for purposes of FIRPTA, and subject to the discussion below regarding “qualified holders,” neither a “qualified foreign pension fund” (as defined below) nor any entity all of the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund is treated as a foreign person, thereby exempting such entities from tax under FIRPTA. A “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established by a foreign country (or one or more political subdivisions thereof) or one or more employers to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or their designees as a result of, or, in consideration for, services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise available, to relevant local tax authorities, and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, (A) contributions that would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or (B) taxation of its investment income is deferred, or such income is excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate. Under Treasury Regulations, subject to the discussion below regarding “qualified holders,” a “qualified controlled entity” also is not generally treated as a foreign person for purposes of FIRPTA. A qualified controlled entity generally includes a trust or corporation organized under the laws of a foreign country all of the interests of which are held by one or more qualified foreign pension funds either directly or indirectly through one or more qualified controlled entities.
Treasury Regulations further require that a qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity will not be exempt from FIRPTA with respect to dispositions of United States real property interests or REIT distributions attributable to the same unless the qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity is a “qualified holder.” To be a qualified holder, a qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity must satisfy one of two alternative tests at the time of the disposition of the United States real property interest or the REIT distribution. Under the first test, a qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity is a qualified holder if it owned no United States real property interests as of the earliest date during an uninterrupted period ending on the date of the disposition or distribution during which it qualified as a qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity. Alternatively, if a qualified foreign pension fund or qualified controlled entity held United States real property interests as of the earliest date during the period described in the preceding sentence, it can be a qualified holder only if it satisfies certain testing period requirements.
Treasury Regulations also provide that a foreign partnership all of the interests of which are held by qualified holders, including through one or more partnerships, may certify its status as such and will not be treated as a foreign person for purposes of withholding under Section 1445 of the Code (and Section 1446 of the Code, as applicable).
Distributions that are attributable to gain from the sales of United States real property interests received by a qualified foreign pension fund or a qualified controlled entity that satisfies the requirements to be a qualified holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax. All other distributions received by a qualified foreign pension fund or a qualified controlled entity will be taxed as described above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders Holding Capital Stock—Distributions.” Gain of a qualified holder from the sale or exchange of our stock and distributions treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our stock under the rules described above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders Holding Capital Stock—Distributions,” will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax, unless such gain is treated as effectively connected with the qualified foreign pension fund’s (or the qualified controlled entity’s, as applicable) conduct of a U.S. trade or business, in which case, the qualified foreign pension fund (or qualified controlled entity) generally will be subject to a tax at the same graduated rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise, and may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on its effectively connected earnings and profits, subject to adjustments, in the case of a foreign corporation.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our investors and should be carefully considered. Those risks are not all of the risks we face and other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business if they occur. This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements beginning on page 4.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
Our business model, especially our concentration in premium full-service hotels, can be highly volatile.
We solely own hotels, a very different asset class from many other REITs. A typical healthcare REIT, for example, has long-term leases with third-party tenants, which provide a relatively stable long-term stream of revenue. Our TRS lessees, on the other hand, do not enter into leases with hotel managers. Instead, the TRS lessee engages the hotel manager pursuant to a management agreement and pays the manager a fee for managing the hotel. The TRS lessee receives all of the operating profit or losses at the hotel. Moreover, virtually all hotel guests stay at the hotel for only a few nights, so the rate and occupancy at each of our hotels changes every day. As a result, our earnings may be highly volatile.
In addition to fluctuations related to our business model, our hotels are, and will continue to be, subject to various long-term operating risks common to the hotel industry, many of which are beyond our control, including:
•dependence on business and commercial travelers and tourism, both of which vary with consumer and business confidence in the strength of the economy;
•decreases in the frequency of business travel that may result from alternatives to in-person meetings, particularly in light of the continuing impact of COVID-19;
•competition from other hotels and alternative lodging channels located in the markets in which we own properties;
•competition from third-party internet travel intermediaries;
•an over-supply or over-building of hotels in the markets in which we own properties, which could adversely affect occupancy rates, revenues and profits at our hotels;
•increases in energy and transportation costs and other expenses affecting travel, which may affect travel patterns and reduce the number of business and commercial travelers and tourists;
•increases in operating costs due to inflation and other factors that may not be offset by increased room rates; and
•changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance.
In addition, our hotels are mostly in the premium full-service segment of the hotel business, which, historically, tends to have the strongest operating results in a growing economy and the weakest results in a contracting or slow growth economy when many travelers might curtail travel or choose lower cost hotels. In periods of weak demand, profitability is negatively affected by the relatively high fixed costs of operating premium full-service hotels as compared to other classes of hotels.
The occurrence of any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Economic conditions and other factors beyond our control may adversely affect the lodging industry.
Our entire business is related to the lodging industry. The performance of the lodging industry is highly cyclical and has historically been linked to key macroeconomic indicators, such as U.S. GDP growth, employment, personal discretionary spending levels, corporate earnings and investment, foreign exchange rates and travel demand. Given that our hotels are concentrated in major urban market cities and destination resort locations in the U.S., our business may be particularly sensitive to changes in foreign exchange rates or a negative international perception of the U.S. arising from its political or other positions. Furthermore, other macroeconomic factors, such as consumer confidence and conditions which negatively shape public perception of travel, including travel-related disruptions or incidents and their impact on travel may have a negative effect on the lodging industry and may adversely impact our revenues and profitability.
Our hotels are subject to significant competition.
Currently, the markets where our hotels are located are very competitive. However, a material increase in the supply of new hotel rooms to a market can quickly destabilize that market and existing hotels can experience rapidly decreasing RevPAR and profitability. If such over-building occurs in one or more of our major markets, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders may be materially adversely affected.
Our hotels are subject to seasonal volatility, which is expected to contribute to fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations.
The periods during which our hotels experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hotel’s room revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We can provide no assurances that our cash flows will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur as a result of these fluctuations. Volatility in our financial performance resulting from the seasonality of our hotels could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
The increase in the use of third-party internet travel intermediaries and the increase in alternative lodging channels, such as Airbnb, could adversely affect our profitability.
Many of our managers and franchisors contract with third-party internet travel intermediaries, including, but not limited to Expedia.com and Priceline.com and their subsidiaries. These internet intermediaries are generally paid commissions and transaction fees by our managers and franchisors for sales of our rooms through such agencies. These intermediaries initially focused on leisure travel, but have grown to focus on corporate travel and group meetings as well. If bookings through these intermediaries increase, these internet intermediaries may be able to negotiate higher commissions, reduced room rates or other contract concessions from us, our managers or our franchisors. In addition, internet intermediaries use extensive marketing, which could result in hotel consumers developing brand loyalties to the offered brands and such internet intermediary instead of our management or franchise brands. Further, internet intermediaries emphasize pricing and quality indicators, such as a star rating system, at the expense of brand identification. In response to these intermediaries, the brand operators and franchisors have launched initiatives to offer discounted rates for booking on their sites, which could put downward pressure on rates and revenue. In addition, an increasing number of companies have entered various aspects of the online travel market. Google, for example, has established a hotel meta-search business (“Hotel Ads”), as well as its “Book on Google” reservation functionality. An increase in hotel reservations made through Google or its competitors, such as Apple, Amazon or Facebook, may reduce the value of our franchise brands, which may negatively affect our average rates and revenues.
In addition to competing with traditional hotels and lodging facilities, we compete with alternative lodging, including third-party providers of short-term rental properties and serviced apartments, such as Airbnb, as well as alternative meeting and event space platforms, such as Convene. We compete based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition and supply and availability of alternative lodging and event space. Increasing use of these alternative facilities could materially adversely affect the occupancy at our hotels and could put downward pressure on average rates and revenues.
The rise of social media review platforms, including, but not limited to Tripadvisor.com, could impact our occupancy levels and operating results as people might be more inclined to write about their dissatisfaction rather than satisfaction with a hotel stay.
The increased use of business-related technology may materially and adversely affect the need for business-related travel, and, therefore, demand for rooms in some of our hotels.
The increased use of Zoom video conferencing, Microsoft Teams and other teleconferencing and video-conference technology by businesses could result in decreased business travel as companies increase the use of technologies that allow multiple parties from different locations to participate in virtual meetings without traveling to a centralized meeting location, such as our hotels. To the extent that such technologies, or new technologies, play an increased role in day-to-day business interactions and the necessity for business-related travel decreases, demand for hotel rooms may decrease and our hotels could be materially and adversely affected.
Investments in hotels are illiquid and we may not be able to respond in a timely fashion to adverse changes in the performance of our properties.
Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, our ability to promptly sell one or more hotel properties or investments in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions may be limited. Moreover, the Code imposes restrictions on a REIT’s ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In particular, the tax laws applicable to REITs require that we hold our hotels for investment, rather than primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business, which may cause us to forego or defer sales of hotels that would otherwise be in our best interests.
In addition, the real estate market is affected by many factors that are beyond our control, including:
•adverse changes in international, national, regional and local economic and market conditions;
•changes in supply of competitive hotels;
•changes in interest rates and in the availability, cost and terms of debt financing;
•changes in tax laws and property tax rates, or an increase in the assessed valuation of a property for real estate tax purposes;
•changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies and ordinances;
•fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
•the ongoing need for capital improvements, particularly in older structures;
•changes in operating expenses; and
•pandemics and the outbreak of diseases, federal, state and local government shutdowns, airline strikes, civil unrest, active shooter attacks, acts of God, including earthquakes, floods, wildfires, hurricanes and other natural disasters and acts of war or terrorism, including the consequences of terrorist acts such as those that occurred on September 11, 2001, which may result in uninsured losses.
It may be in the best interest of our stockholders to sell one or more of our hotels in the future. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any hotel property or investment at an acceptable price or otherwise on reasonable terms and conditions. We also cannot predict the length of time that will be necessary to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a hotel property or loan.
These facts and any others that would impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our hotel properties could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, as well as our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Due to restrictions in our hotel management agreements, franchise agreements, mortgage agreements and ground leases, we may not be able to sell our hotels at the highest possible price, or at all.
Certain of our current hotel management and franchise agreements are long-term.
All but four of our hotel management agreements are terminable at our option. The remaining four hotel management agreements have remaining terms ranging from approximately five years to 36 years, inclusive of renewal periods that are exercisable at the option of the property manager. We are subject to franchise agreements at certain of our properties, with remaining terms of up to 28 years, inclusive of renewal periods that are exercisable at the option of the franchisor. See Item 2, Properties, for hotel management and franchise agreement details. Because some of our hotels would have to be sold subject to the applicable agreement, the term length of an agreement may deter some potential purchasers and could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.
Our mortgage agreements contain certain provisions that may limit our ability to sell our hotels.
In order to assign or transfer our rights and obligations under certain of our mortgage agreements, we generally must obtain the consent of the lender, pay a fee equal to a fixed percentage of the outstanding loan balance, and pay any costs incurred by the lender in connection with any such assignment or transfer. These provisions of our mortgage agreements may limit our ability to sell our hotels which, in turn, could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.
Our ground leases contain certain provisions that may limit our ability to sell our hotels.
Our ground lease agreements with respect to the Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda, the Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek, the Westin Boston Seaport District, the Hotel Palomar Phoenix, the Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue and Cavallo Point, as well as the ground lease underlying our annex sublease at the Orchards Inn Sedona, require the consent of the lessor for assignment or transfer. These provisions of our ground leases may limit our ability to sell our hotels which, in turn, could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. In addition, at any given time, investors may be disinterested in buying properties subject to a ground lease and may pay a lower price for such properties than for a comparable property owned in fee simple or they may not purchase such properties at any price. Accordingly, we may find it difficult to sell a property subject to a ground lease or may receive lower proceeds from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds or are unable to sell the hotel at an opportune time or at all, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.
Some of our hotels are subject to rights of first offer that may limit our ability to sell our hotels.
We are subject to a franchisor’s or operator’s right of first offer, in some instances under our franchise agreements or management agreements. Such provisions may limit our ability to sell our hotels which, in turn, could adversely impact the price realized from any such sale. To the extent that we receive lower sale proceeds, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders could be materially adversely affected.
We may be subject to unknown or contingent liabilities related to recently sold or acquired hotels, as well as hotels that we may sell or acquire in the future.
Our recently sold or acquired hotels, as well as hotels we may sell or acquire in the future, may be subject to unknown or contingent liabilities for which we may be liable to the buyers or for which we may have no recourse, or only limited recourse, against the sellers. In general, the representations and warranties provided under our transaction agreements related to the sale or purchase of a hotel may survive for a defined period of time after the completion of the transaction.
Furthermore, indemnification under such agreements may be limited and subject to various materiality thresholds, a significant deductible, or an aggregate cap on losses. As a result, there is no guaranty that we will not be obligated to reimburse buyers for their losses or that we will be able to recover any amounts with respect to losses due to breaches by sellers of their representations and warranties.
In addition, the total amount of costs and expenses that may be incurred with respect to the unknown or contingent liabilities may exceed our expectations, and we may experience other unanticipated adverse effects, all of which could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.
We are subject to risks associated with our ongoing need for renovations and capital improvements as well as financing for such expenditures.
In order to remain competitive, our hotels have an ongoing need for renovations and other capital improvements, including replacements, from time to time, of furniture, fixtures and equipment. These capital improvements may give rise to the following risks:
•construction cost overruns and delays, including those caused by supply chain disruptions or inflationary price increases;
•a possible shortage of available cash to fund capital improvements and the related possibility that financing for these capital improvements may not be available to us on affordable terms;
•the renovation investment failing to produce the returns on investment that we expect;
•disruptions in the operations of the hotel as well as in demand for the hotel while capital improvements are underway; and
•disputes with franchisors/hotel managers regarding compliance with relevant franchise/management agreements.
The costs of these capital improvements or profit displacements during the completion of these capital improvements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
In addition, we may not be able to fund capital improvements or acquisitions solely from cash provided from our operating activities because we generally must distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, each year to maintain our REIT tax status. As a result, our ability to fund capital expenditures or investments through retained earnings is very limited. Consequently, we rely upon the availability of debt or equity capital to fund our investments and capital improvements. These sources of funds may not be available on reasonable terms or conditions.
COVID-19 has caused, and COVID-19 or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease could continue to cause, severe disruptions in the U.S., regional and global economies, travel and the hospitality industry and could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
COVID-19, including the emergence of additional variants, has caused, and COVID-19 or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease could continue to cause, widespread disruptions to the U.S. and global economy and has contributed to significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets.
The full extent to which COVID-19, or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease, impacts our operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity and duration of such pandemic, the emergence and characteristics of new variants, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, including the adoption, administration and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected, and COVID-19 or any future pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of any other highly infectious disease may continue to materially and adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations, and our ability to pay dividends, and may also have the effect of heightening many of the risks described below and within this “Risk Factors” section, including:
•a complete or partial closure or re-closure of, or other operational issues at, one or more of our hotels resulting from government, third-party hotel manager or franchisor action, which has materially adversely affected, and could continue to materially adversely affect, our operations;
•the postponement or cancellation of conferences, conventions, festivals, sporting events, public events and other group business that would have otherwise brought individuals to the cities in which our hotels are located, which has caused, and could continue to cause, a decrease in occupancy rates over a prolonged period of time and exacerbated the seasonal volatility at our hotels;
•a general decline of in-person business meetings and an increase in the use of teleconferencing and video-conference technology, which could cause a sustained shift away from business-related travel and have a material adverse effect on the overall demand for hotel rooms; and
•a decrease in individuals’ willingness to travel as a result of the public health risks and social impacts of such outbreak or a decrease in consumer spending, which could affect the ability of our hotels to generate sufficient revenues to meet operating and other expenses in the short- and long-term.
In the event of natural disasters caused by climate change or otherwise, terrorist attacks, active shooter attacks, significant military actions, outbreaks of contagious diseases or other events for which we may not have adequate insurance, our operations may suffer.
We are subject to the risks associated with the direct and indirect physical effects of climate change, which can include more frequent and severe storms, hurricanes, flooding, droughts and wildfires, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Seven of our hotels (The Lodge at Sonoma Resort, Westin San Diego Bayview, Hotel Emblem San Francisco, Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel, Kimpton Shorebreak Resort, The Landing Lake Tahoe Resort & Spa, and Cavallo Point) are located in areas that are seismically active. Nine of our hotels (Havana Cabana Key West, Margaritaville Beach House Key West, Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort, Henderson Park Inn, Henderson Beach Resort, Bourbon Orleans Hotel, Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel, Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort and Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort) are located in areas that have experienced, and will continue to experience, many hurricanes. Eleven of our hotels are located in metropolitan markets that have been, or may in the future be, targets of actual or threatened terrorist attacks or active shooter attacks, including New York City, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. These hotels are material to our financial results, having constituted 75% of our total revenues in 2022. In addition, to the extent that climate change causes an increase in storm intensity or rising sea levels, our hotels, which are concentrated in coastal areas and other areas that may be impacted by climate change, may be susceptible to an increase in weather-related damage. Additionally, even in the absence of direct physical damage to our hotels, the occurrence of any natural disasters, terrorist attacks, significant military actions, a changing climate in the area of any of our hotels, outbreaks of pandemics or diseases, such as Zika, Ebola, COVID-19, H1N1 or other similar viruses, or other casualty events, will likely have a material adverse effect on business and commercial travelers and tourists, the economy generally and the hotel and tourism industries in particular. While we cannot predict the impact of the occurrence of any of these events, such events may result in decreases in consumer discretionary spending, including the frequency with which our customers choose to stay at hotels or the amount they spend on hotels, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We have acquired and intend to maintain comprehensive insurance on each of our hotels, including liability, terrorism, fire and extended coverage, of the type and amount that we believe are customarily obtained for or by hotel owners. We cannot guarantee that such coverage will continue to be available at reasonable rates or with reasonable deductibles. Our Florida hotels (Havana Cabana Key West, Margaritaville Beach House Key West, Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort, Henderson Park Inn, Henderson Beach Resort, Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort and Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort) each have a deductible of 5% of total insured value for a named storm and the Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel and Bourbon Orleans Hotel each has a deductible of 2% of total insured value. In addition, each of our California hotels (Westin San Diego Bayview, Hotel Emblem San Francisco, Kimpton Shorebreak Resort, The Lodge at Sonoma Resort, and Cavallo Point) have a deductible of 5% of total insured value for damage due to an earthquake. We have submitted insurance claims relating to natural disasters at our hotels before and may need to submit similar claims in the future. The prior claims and the increased incidence of substantial claims due to future natural disasters may adversely impact the availability or pricing of insurance available to us.
Various types of catastrophic losses, like earthquakes, floods, wildfires, losses from foreign terrorist activities, or losses from domestic terrorist activities may not be insurable or are generally not insured because of economic infeasibility, legal restrictions or the policies of insurers. Future lenders may require such insurance, and our failure to obtain such insurance could constitute a default under loan agreements. Depending on our access to capital, liquidity and the value of the properties securing the affected loan in relation to the balance of the loan, a default could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and ability to obtain future financing.
In the event of a substantial loss, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover the full current market value or replacement cost of our lost investment. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a hotel, as well as the anticipated future revenue from that particular hotel. In that event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations secured by or related to the
property. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors might also prevent us from using insurance proceeds to replace or renovate a hotel after it has been damaged or destroyed. Under those circumstances, the insurance proceeds we receive might be inadequate to restore our economic position with regard to the damaged or destroyed property.
Our results of operations are highly dependent on the management of our hotel properties by third-party hotel management companies.
In order to qualify as a REIT, we cannot operate our hotel properties or control the daily operations of our hotel properties. Our TRS lessees may not operate these hotel properties and, therefore, they must enter into third-party hotel management agreements with one or more eligible independent contractors. Thus, third-party hotel management companies that enter into management contracts with our TRS lessees control the daily operations of our hotel properties.
Under the terms of the hotel management agreements that we have entered into, or that we will enter into in the future, our ability to participate in operating decisions regarding our hotel properties is limited to certain matters, including approval of the annual operating budget. We currently rely, and will continue to rely, on these hotel management companies to adequately operate our hotel properties under the terms of the hotel management agreements. While we and our TRS lessees closely monitor the performance of our hotel managers, we do not have the authority to require any hotel property to be operated in a particular manner or to govern any particular aspect of its operations (for instance, setting room rates and cost structures). Thus, even if we believe that our hotel properties are being operated inefficiently or in a manner that does not result in satisfactory occupancy rates, ADRs and operating profits, we may not have sufficient rights under our hotel management agreements to enable us to force the hotel management company to change its method of operation. We can only seek redress if a hotel management company violates the terms of the applicable hotel management agreement with the TRS lessee, and then only to the extent of the remedies provided for under the terms of the hotel management agreement. Four of our current management agreements are non-terminable, subject to certain exceptions for cause or failure to achieve certain performance targets. In the event that we need to replace any of our hotel management companies pursuant to termination for cause or performance, we may experience significant disruptions at the affected properties and the new management companies may not meet our performance expectations, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We may be unable to maintain good relationships with third-party hotel managers and franchisors.
The success of our respective hotel investments and the value of our franchised properties largely depend on our ability to establish and maintain good relationships with the third-party hotel managers and franchisors of our respective hotel management and franchise agreements. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with third-party hotel managers or franchisors, we may be unable to renew existing management or franchise agreements or expand relationships with them. Additionally, opportunities for developing new relationships with additional third-party hotel managers or franchisors may be adversely affected. This, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to execute our repositioning strategy through a change in brand or change in third-party hotel manager.
A substantial number of our hotels operate under a brand owned by Marriott or Hilton; therefore, we are subject to risks associated with concentrating our portfolio in two brands.
As of the date of this report, 16 of our 35 hotels operate under brands owned by Marriott and four of our hotels operate under brands owned by Hilton. As a result, our success is dependent in part on the continued success of Marriott and Hilton and their respective brands. Consequently, if market recognition or the positive perception of Marriott or Hilton is reduced or compromised, the goodwill associated with the Marriott- and Hilton-branded hotels in our portfolio may be adversely affected, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Several of our hotels are operated under franchise agreements and we are subject to the risks associated with the franchise brand and the costs associated with maintaining the franchise license.
As of the date of this report, 20 of our 35 hotels operate under Marriott or Hilton franchise agreements. The maintenance of the franchise licenses for branded hotel properties is subject to the franchisors’ operating standards and other terms and conditions set forth in the applicable franchise agreement. Franchisors periodically inspect hotel properties to ensure that we, our TRS lessees and management companies follow their brand standards.
If we fail to maintain these required standards, then the brand may terminate its agreement with us and assert a claim for damages for any liability we may have caused, which could include liquidated damages. Moreover, from time to time, we may receive notices from franchisors or the hotel brands regarding alleged non-compliance with the franchise agreements or brand standards, and we may disagree with these claims that we are not in compliance. Any disputes arising under these agreements could also lead to a termination of a franchise or management agreement and a payment of liquidated damages. If we were to lose a franchise or hotel brand for a particular hotel, it could harm the operation, financing, or value of that hotel due to the loss of the franchise or hotel brand name, marketing support and centralized reservation system, all or any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.
Contractual and other disagreements with third-party hotel managers and franchisors could make us liable to them or result in litigation costs or other expenses.
Our management and franchise agreements with third-party hotel managers require us and the applicable third-party hotel manager to comply with operational and performance conditions that are subject to interpretation and could result in disagreements, and we expect this will be true of any management and franchise agreements that we enter into with future third-party hotel managers or franchisors. At any given time, we may be in disputes with one or more third-party hotel managers or franchisors.
Any such dispute could be very expensive for us, even if the outcome is ultimately in our favor. We cannot predict the outcome of any arbitration or litigation, the effect of any negative judgment against us or the amount of any settlement that we may enter into with any franchisor other third-party hotel manager. In the event we terminate a management or franchise agreement early and the hotel manager or franchisor considers such termination to have been wrongful, they may seek damages. Additionally, we may be required to indemnify our third-party hotel managers and franchisors against disputes with third parties, pursuant to our management and franchise agreements. An adverse result in any of these proceedings could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
If we were to lose a brand license at one or more of our hotels, the value of the affected hotels could decline significantly and we could incur significant costs to obtain new franchise licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
If we were to lose a brand license, the underlying value of a particular hotel could decline significantly from the loss of associated name recognition, marketing support, participation in guest loyalty programs and the centralized reservation system provided by the franchisor or brand manager, which could require us to recognize an impairment on the hotel. Furthermore, the loss of a franchise license at a particular hotel could harm our relationship with the franchisor or brand manager, which could impede our ability to operate other hotels under the same brand, limit our ability to obtain new franchise licenses or brand management agreements from the franchisor or brand in the future on favorable terms, or at all, and cause us to incur significant costs to obtain a new franchise license or brand management agreement for the particular hotel. Accordingly, if we lose one or more franchise licenses or brand management agreements, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
Our business may be adversely affected by consolidation in the lodging industry.
Consolidation among companies in the lodging industry may reduce our bargaining power in negotiating management agreements and franchise agreements due to decreased competition among major brand companies. For instance, in 2016, Marriott acquired Starwood Hotels & Resorts, resulting in the increased portfolio concentration in the Marriott brand family (16 of our 35 hotels). We believe Marriott may use this leverage when negotiating for property improvement plans upon the acquisition of a hotel in cases where the franchisor or hotel brand requires renovations to bring the physical condition of a hotel into compliance with the specifications and standards each franchisor or hotel brand has developed.
Industry consolidation could also result in the lack of differentiation among the brands, which could impact the ability to drive higher rates in those brands. In addition, to the extent that consolidation among hotel brand companies adversely affects the loyalty reward program offered by one or more of our hotels, customer loyalty to those hotels may suffer and demand for guestrooms may decrease. Furthermore, because each hotel brand company relies on its own network of reservation systems, hotel management systems and customer databases, the integration of two or more networks may result in a disruption to operations of these systems, such as disruptions in processing guest reservations, delayed bookings or sales, or lost guest reservations, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, following the completion of a merger of companies, the costs to integrate the companies may be absorbed by our impacted hotel or hotels and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our ownership of properties through ground leases exposes us to the risks that we may have difficulty financing such properties, be forced to sell such properties for a lower price, are unable to extend the ground leases at maturity or lose such properties upon breach or termination of the ground leases.
We hold a leasehold or subleasehold interest in all or a portion of the land underlying eight of our hotels owned as of December 31, 2022 (Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda, Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue, Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek, Westin Boston Seaport District, Hotel Clio (formerly JW Marriott Denver Cherry Creek), Orchards Inn Sedona, Hotel Palomar Phoenix, and Cavallo Point), and the parking areas at two of our hotels (Worthington Renaissance Fort Worth Hotel and Bourbon Orleans Hotel). We may acquire additional hotels in the future subject to ground leases. In the past, from time to time, secured lenders have been unwilling to lend, or otherwise charged higher interest rates, for loans secured by a leasehold mortgage compared to loans secured by a fee simple mortgage. For this reason, we may have a difficult time selling a property subject to a ground lease or may receive lower proceeds from a sale. Finally, as the lessee under our ground leases, we are exposed to the possibility of losing the hotel, or a portion of the hotel, upon termination, or an earlier breach by us, of the ground lease, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Furthermore, unless we purchase a fee simple interest in the land and improvements subject to our ground leases, we will not have any economic interest in the land or improvements at the expiration of our ground leases and therefore we generally will not share in any increase in value of the land or improvements beyond the term of a ground lease, notwithstanding our capital outlay to purchase our interest in the hotel or fund improvements thereon, and will lose our right to use the hotel.
The failure of tenants to make rent payments under our retail and restaurant leases may adversely affect our results of operation.
On occasion, retail and restaurant tenants at our hotel properties may fail to make rent payments when due. Generally, we hold security deposits in connection with each lease which may be applied in the event that the tenant under the lease fails or is unable to make payments; however, these security deposits do not provide us with sustained cash flow to pay distributions or for other purposes. In the event that a tenant continually fails to make rent payments, the security deposits may be applied in full to the non-payment of rents, but we face the risk of being able to recover only a portion of the rents due to us or being unable to recover any amounts whatsoever. If we evict a tenant, we also face the risk of delay or inability to find a suitable tenant or replacement tenant that suits the needs of our hotel.
We face competition for hotel acquisitions and investments and we may not be successful in identifying or completing hotel acquisitions and investments that meet our criteria, which may impede our growth.
One component of our long-term business strategy is expansion through hotel acquisitions and investments. However, we may not be successful in identifying or completing acquisitions or investments that are consistent with our strategy. We compete with institutional pension funds, private equity funds, REITs, hotel companies and others who are engaged in hotel acquisitions and investments. This competition for hotel investments may increase the price we pay for hotels and these competitors may succeed in acquiring those hotels that we seek to purchase. In addition, the number of entities competing for suitable hotels may increase in the future, which would increase demand for these hotels and the prices we must pay to acquire them. If we pay higher prices for hotels, our returns on investment and profitability may be reduced. Also, future acquisitions of hotels, hotel companies or hotel investments may not yield the returns we expect, especially if we cannot obtain financing without paying higher borrowing costs, and may result in stockholder dilution.
Even if we successfully complete hotel acquisitions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully integrate the hotels we acquire into our existing operations or otherwise realize the expected benefits of these acquisitions.
Even if we successfully complete hotel acquisitions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully integrate the hotels we acquire into our existing operations or otherwise realize the expected benefits of these acquisitions. In addition, the acquisition and subsequent integration of the additional hotels into our existing portfolio may require significant time and focus from our management team and may divert attention from the day-to-day operations of our business, which could delay the achievement of our strategic objectives. Acquired properties may be located in markets where we may face risks associated with a lack of market knowledge or understanding of the local economy, lack of business relationships in the area and unfamiliarity with local governmental and permitting procedures. Further, the acquired properties may present other unique risks due to the nature of the assets acquired. Any delay or failure on our part to operate acquired properties to meet our
financial expectations could impede our growth and have an adverse effect on us, including our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow.
Actions by organized labor could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We believe that unions are generally becoming more aggressive about organizing workers at hotels in certain geographic locations. Potential labor activities at these hotels could significantly increase the administrative, labor and legal expenses and reduce the profits that we receive. If hotels in our portfolio are organized, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We have entered into management agreements with third-party managers to operate our hotels. Our hotel managers are responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at each of our hotels. From time to time, strikes, lockouts, public demonstrations or other negative actions and publicity may disrupt hotel operations at any of our hotels, negatively impact our reputation or the reputation of our brands, or harm relationships with the labor forces at our hotels. We also may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contract disputes or other events. Additionally, hotels where our managers have collective bargaining agreements with employees are more highly affected by labor force activities than others. The resolution of labor disputes or new or re-negotiated labor contracts could lead to increased labor costs, either by increases in wages or benefits or by changes in work rules that raise hotel operating costs. Furthermore, labor agreements may limit the ability of our hotel managers to reduce the size of hotel workforces during an economic downturn because collective bargaining agreements are negotiated between the hotel managers and labor unions. We do not have the ability to control the outcome of these negotiations.
Labor shortages could slow our growth or harm our business.
Our success depends in part upon our third-party managers’ ability to attract, motivate and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees. Qualified individuals needed to fill these positions are in increasingly short supply in some areas. The inability to recruit and retain these individuals may adversely impact hotel operations and guest satisfaction, which could harm our business. Additionally, competition for qualified employees may require us to pay meaningfully higher wages to attract enough employees than has historically been the case, and continued tightness in labor markets could result in continued escalation of labor costs. In addition, we could face additional challenges meeting workforce requirements due to changes in workforce dynamics, such as remote work arrangements or more flexibility in work schedules, which could result in increased labor costs in the future.
Actions by federal, state or local jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Several local jurisdictions in the U.S. have enacted, or considered, legislation increasing the minimum wage for workers in the jurisdiction. Some of this legislation applies to hotels only. If a jurisdiction in which the Company owns a hotel adopts such legislation, then the cost to operate the hotel may increase significantly and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
The Department of Labor has adopted regulations, effective as of January 1, 2020, that have the effect of increasing the number of workers entitled to overtime. These regulations may result in higher operating costs and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Risks Related to the Economy and Credit Markets
The lack of availability and terms of financing could adversely impact the amounts, sources and costs of capital available to us.
The ownership of hotels is very capital intensive. We finance the acquisition of our hotels with a mixture of equity and long-term debt, while we traditionally finance renovations and operating needs with cash provided from operations or with borrowings from our corporate credit facility. Our mortgage loans typically have a large balloon payment due at their maturity. Generally, we find it more efficient to place a significant amount of debt on a small number of our hotels while we try to maintain a significant number of our hotels unencumbered.
During periods of economic recession, it could be difficult for us to borrow money. In recent years, a significant percentage of hotel loans were made by lenders who sold such loans to securitized lending vehicles, such as commercial
mortgage backed security (“CMBS”) pools. If the market for new CMBS issuances results in CMBS lenders making fewer loans, there is a risk that the debt capital available to us could be reduced.
An uncertain environment in the lodging industry and the economy generally could result in declines in our average daily room rates, occupancy and RevPAR, and thereby have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The performance of the lodging industry has traditionally been closely linked with the general economy. A stall in economic growth or an economic recession could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. When a property's occupancy or room rates drop to the point where its revenues are less than its operating expenses, we are required to spend additional funds in order to cover that property's operating expenses.
In addition, if the operating results decline at our hotels that are secured by mortgage debt, there may not be sufficient operating profits from the hotel to fund the debt service on the mortgage. In such a case, we may be forced to choose from a number of unfavorable options, including using corporate cash, drawing on our corporate credit facility, selling a hotel on disadvantageous terms, including an unattractive price, or defaulting on the mortgage debt and permitting the lender to foreclose. Any one of these options could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
Risks Related to Our Debt and Financing
The instruments governing our existing indebtedness contain, and instruments governing our future indebtedness may contain, financial covenants that could limit our operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Our existing property-level debt instruments contain, and instruments governing property-level debt we incur in the future may contain, restrictions (including cash management provisions) that may, under circumstances specified in the loan agreements, prohibit our subsidiaries that own our hotels from making distributions or paying dividends, repaying loans to us or other subsidiaries or transferring any of their assets to us or another subsidiary. Failure to meet our financial covenants could result from, among other things, changes in our results of operations, the incurrence of additional debt or changes in general economic conditions. In addition, this could cause one or more of our lenders to accelerate the timing of payments and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. The terms of our debt may restrict our ability to engage in transactions that we believe would otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
Our credit facility and term loans contain financial covenants that may constrain our ability to sell assets and make distributions to our stockholders.
Our corporate credit facility and term loans contain several financial covenants, the most constraining of which limits the amount of debt that we may incur compared to the value of our hotels (our leverage covenant) and the amount of debt service we pay compared to our cash flow (our debt service coverage covenant). If we were to default under either of these covenants or were unable to obtain a waiver of such default, the lenders may require us to repay all amounts then outstanding under our credit facility and term loans and may terminate our credit facility and term loans. In each of 2020, 2021 and 2022, we executed amendments to the credit agreements in place at the time in order to waive the quarterly tested financial covenants and make certain other modifications to the covenants contained therein. We exited the covenant waivers and modifications as of the second quarter of 2022, and we are in compliance with all financial covenants, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to meet our financial covenants in the future or that we will be able to obtain additional waivers from our lenders, if needed. These and our other financial covenants constrain us from incurring material amounts of additional debt or from selling properties that generate a material amount of income. In addition, our credit facility requires that we maintain a minimum number of our hotels as unencumbered assets.
Many of our existing mortgage debt agreements contain, and future mortgage debt agreements may contain, “cash trap” provisions that could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Certain of our loan agreements contain, and future mortgage debt agreements may contain, cash trap provisions that may be triggered if the performance of the affected hotel or hotels declines to a certain level. If the provisions in one or more of these loan agreements are triggered, substantially all of the cash flow generated by the hotel or hotels affected will be deposited directly into lockbox accounts and then swept into cash management accounts for the benefit of the lenders. Cash will be distributed to us only after certain items are paid, including deposits into leasing and maintenance reserves and the payment of debt service, insurance, taxes, operating expenses, and extraordinary capital expenditures and leasing expenses. These “cash trap” provisions do not provide the lender the right to accelerate repayment of the underlying debt. As of December 31, 2022,
we had $2.9 million held in cash traps. We do not expect that such cash traps will affect our ability to satisfy our short-term liquidity requirements. However, the triggering of cash traps in the future could affect our liquidity and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
There is refinancing risk associated with our debt.
Our typical debt contains limited principal amortization; therefore, the vast majority of the principal must be repaid at the maturity of the loan in a so-called “balloon payment.” In the event that we do not have sufficient funds to repay the debt at the maturity of these loans, we will need to refinance this debt. If the credit environment is constrained at the time of our debt maturities, we would have a very difficult time refinancing debt. When we refinance our debt, prevailing interest rates and other factors may result in paying a greater amount of debt service, which will adversely affect our cash flow, and, consequently, our cash available for distribution to our stockholders. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, we may be forced to choose from a number of unfavorable options. These options include agreeing to otherwise unfavorable financing terms on one or more of our unencumbered assets, selling one or more hotels on disadvantageous terms, including unattractive prices or defaulting on the mortgage and permitting the lender to foreclose. Any one of these options could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
If we default on our secured debt in the future, the lenders may foreclose on our hotels.
All of our indebtedness, except our credit facility and term loan, is secured by single property first mortgages on the applicable property. If we default on any of the secured loans, the lender will be able to foreclose on the property pledged to the relevant lender under that loan. While we have maintained certain of our hotels unencumbered by mortgage debt, we have a relatively high loan-to-value on a number of our hotels which are subject to mortgage loans and, as a result, those mortgaged hotels may be at an increased risk of default and foreclosure. In addition, to the extent that we cannot meet any future debt service obligations, we will risk losing some or all of our hotels that are pledged to secure our obligations to foreclosure. This could affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
In addition to losing the property, a foreclosure may result in recognition of taxable income. Under the Code, a foreclosure of property securing non-recourse debt would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure even though we did not receive any cash proceeds. As a result, we may be required to identify and utilize other sources of cash for distributions to our stockholders. If this occurs, our financial condition, cash flow and ability to satisfy our other debt obligations or ability to pay distributions may be adversely affected.
Future debt service obligations may adversely affect our operating results, require us to liquidate our properties, jeopardize our ability to make cash distributions necessary to maintain our tax status as a REIT and limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
In the future, we and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt, including secured debt. Borrowing costs increased throughout 2022 and may continue to increase near-term as the Federal Reserve acts to address rising inflation and, as a result, borrowing costs on new and refinanced debt may be more expensive. Our existing debt, and any additional debt borrowed in the future could subject us to many risks, including the risks that:
•our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest or to make cash distributions necessary to maintain our tax status as a REIT;
•we may be vulnerable to adverse economic and industry conditions;
•we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the repayment of our debt, thereby reducing the cash available for distribution to our stockholders, operations and capital expenditures, future investment opportunities or other purposes;
•the terms of any refinancing might not be as favorable as the terms of the debt being refinanced; and
•the use of leverage could adversely affect our stock price and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
If we violate covenants in our future indebtedness agreements, we could be required to repay all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity at a time when we might be unable to arrange financing for such repayment on favorable terms, if at all.
Refinanced debt could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders, as well as reduce funds available for our operations, future investment opportunities or other purposes.
Increases in interest rates may increase our interest expense.
Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies. Higher interest rates could increase debt service requirements on any of our floating rate debt, including our unsecured term loans and any outstanding balance on our senior unsecured credit facility, and could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders, as well as reduce funds available for our operations, future business opportunities or other purposes.
Hedging against interest rate exposure may adversely affect us.
We manage certain exposure to interest rate volatility by using interest rate hedging, such as swap agreements, to hedge against the possible negative effects of interest rate fluctuations. We may continue to do so in the future. However, hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of volatile interest rates, available interest rate hedges may not correspond directly with the interest rate risk for which protection is sought, the duration of the interest rate hedge may not match the duration of the related liability, and we cannot assure you that any hedging will adequately mitigate the adverse effects of interest rate increases or that counterparties under these agreements will honor their obligations. As a result, our hedging transactions could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.
The discontinuation of LIBOR and the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate may adversely affect our borrowing costs and could impact our business and results of operations.
We expect that all LIBOR settings relevant to us will cease to be published or will no longer be representative after June 30, 2023. The discontinuation of LIBOR will not affect our ability to borrow or maintain already outstanding borrowings or hedging transactions, but if our contracts indexed to LIBOR, including contracts governing our interest rate swaps, are converted to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), the differences between LIBOR and SOFR, plus the recommended spread adjustment, could result in interest or hedging costs that are higher than if LIBOR remained available. Additionally, although SOFR is the recommended replacement rate, it is also possible that lenders may instead choose alternative replacements that may differ from LIBOR in ways similar to SOFR or in ways that would result in higher interest or hedging costs for us. It is not yet possible to predict the magnitude of LIBOR’s end on our borrowing costs given the remaining uncertainty about which rates will replace LIBOR. As of December 31, 2022, all of our variable rate debt and interest rate swaps have been transitioned to SOFR.
Risks Related to Regulation and the Environment
Noncompliance with governmental regulations could adversely affect our operating results.
Our hotels are, and the hotels that we acquire in the future will be, subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations relating to environmental protection. Under these laws, courts and government agencies may have the authority to require us, as owner of a contaminated property, to clean up the property, even if we did not know of, or were not responsible for, the contamination. These laws apply to persons who owned a property at the time it became contaminated so we may incur cleanup costs or other environmental liabilities even after we sell a property. In addition to the costs of cleanup, environmental contamination can affect the value of a property and, therefore, an owner’s ability to borrow funds using the property as collateral or to sell the property. Additionally, under certain environmental laws, courts and government agencies also have the authority to require that (i) a person who sent waste to a waste disposal facility, such as a landfill or an incinerator, pay for the clean-up of that facility if it becomes contaminated and threatens human health or the environment and (ii) a person who arranges for the disposal or treatment, or transports for disposal or treatment, a hazardous substance at a property owned by another person pay for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous substances released into the environment at that property.
Our hotels are also subject to various federal, state, and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that address a wide variety of issues, including, but not limited to, storage tanks, air emissions from emergency generators, storm water and wastewater discharges, asbestos, lead-based paint, mold and mildew and waste management. Some of our hotels routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations, which substances and wastes are subject to regulation (e.g., swimming pool chemicals). Our hotels incur costs to comply with these laws and regulations and could be subject to fines and penalties for non-compliance. Additionally, various court decisions have established that third parties may recover damages for injury caused by property contamination. For instance, a person exposed to asbestos while staying or working in a hotel may seek to recover damages if he or she suffers injury from the asbestos.
Although we have taken and will take commercially reasonable steps to assess the condition of our properties, there may be unknown environmental problems associated with our properties. If environmental contamination exists on our properties, we could become subject to strict, joint and several liability for the contamination by virtue of our ownership interest. In addition, we are obligated to indemnify our lenders for any liability they may incur in connection with a contaminated property.
We could be responsible for the costs associated with a contaminated property, including the costs to clean up a contaminated property or to defend against a claim, and such costs could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. Additionally, we regularly incur costs to comply with environmental laws and we cannot assure you that future laws or regulations will not impose material environmental liabilities or that the current environmental condition of our hotels will not be affected by the condition of the properties in the vicinity of our hotels (such as the presence of leaking underground storage tanks) or by third parties unrelated to us.
In recent years, numerous treaties, laws and regulations have been enacted to regulate or limit carbon emissions and, as a result, we are subject to the risks associated with such transitional effects to a law carbon scenario. These effects may include, but are not limited to, increased regulation for building efficiency and equipment specifications, increased regulations or investor requirements for environmental and social disclosures and increased costs to manage the shift in consumer preferences. For example, in an effort to mitigate the impact of climate change, our hotels could become subject to increased governmental regulations mandating energy efficiency standards, the usage of sustainable energy sources and updated equipment specifications which may require additional capital investments or result in increased operating costs. Additionally, if there is a shift in consumer preferences for more sustainable travel accommodations, we may also incur increased costs to manage such consumer expectations for sustainable buildings and hotel operations. The drive to limit carbon emissions and other climate change related regulations and consumer preferences may require us to make significant investments in our hotels and could result in increased energy costs at our properties which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Americans with Disabilities Act and other changes in governmental rules and regulations.
Our properties must comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (the “ADA”), to the extent that such properties are “public accommodations” as defined by the ADA. Under the ADA, all public accommodations must meet various federal non-discrimination requirements related to access and use by individuals with disabilities. Compliance with the ADA’s requirements could require removal of architectural barriers to access and non-compliance could result in the payment of civil penalties, damages, and attorneys' fees and costs. We believe that our properties are in substantial compliance with the ADA; however, the obligation to comply with the ADA is an ongoing one, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate in this regard. If we are required to make substantial modifications to our hotels, whether to comply with the ADA or other changes in governmental rules and regulations, our financial condition, results of operations and ability to make distributions to our stockholders could be adversely affected.
Our hotel properties may contain or develop harmful mold, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediating the problem.
When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Concern about indoor exposure to mold has been increasing, as exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic reactions. As a result, the presence of mold to which our hotel guests or employees could be exposed at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property, which would reduce our cash available for distribution. In addition, exposure to
mold by our guests or employees, management company employees or others could expose us to liability if property damage or adverse health concerns arise.
Risks Related to Our Status as a REIT
We cannot assure you that we will remain qualified as a REIT.
We believe that we are qualified to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our taxable year ended December 31, 2022, and we expect to continue to qualify as a REIT for future taxable years, but we cannot assure you that we have qualified, or will remain qualified, as a REIT. The REIT qualification requirements are extremely complex and official interpretations of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT are limited. Certain aspects of our REIT qualification are beyond our control. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in operating so that we can remain qualified as a REIT. At any time, new laws, interpretations or court decisions may change the U.S. federal tax laws or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of our qualification as a REIT. Moreover, our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT.
If we fail to qualify as a REIT and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, or otherwise cease to be a REIT, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at the corporate rate. We might need to borrow money or sell assets in order to pay any such tax. Also, we would not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to our stockholders in computing our taxable income and we would no longer be compelled to make distributions under the Code. Unless we were entitled to relief under certain U.S. federal income tax laws, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT but are eligible for certain relief provisions, then we may retain our status as a REIT, but we may be required to pay a penalty tax, which could be substantial.
Maintaining our REIT qualification contains certain restrictions and drawbacks.
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forgo otherwise attractive opportunities.
To remain qualified as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our stock. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forgo attractive business or investment opportunities. For example, we may not lease to our TRS any hotel which contains gaming. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to operate solely to maximize profits.
To qualify as a REIT, we must meet annual distribution requirements.
In order to remain qualified as a REIT, we generally are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, each year to our stockholders. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed REIT taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal tax laws. As a result of differences between cash flow and the accrual of income and expenses for tax purposes, or nondeductible expenditures, for example, our REIT taxable income in any given year could exceed our cash available for distribution. Accordingly, we may be required to borrow money or sell assets at disadvantageous prices, distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions or capital expenditures or used for the repayment of debt, pay dividends in the form of “taxable stock dividends” or find another alternative source of funds to make distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the distribution requirement and to avoid U.S. federal corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax in a particular year.
The formation of our TRSs and TRS lessees increases our overall tax liability.
Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. Our domestic TRSs are subject to U.S. federal and state income tax on their taxable income. The taxable income of our TRS lessees currently consists and generally will continue to consist of revenues from the hotels leased by our TRS lessees plus, in certain cases, key money payments (amounts paid to us by a hotel management company in exchange for the right to manage a hotel we acquire) and yield support payments, net of the operating expenses for such properties and rent payments to us. Such taxes could be substantial.
We will be subject to a 100% excise tax to the extent that transactions with our TRSs are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. For example, to the extent that the rent paid by one of our TRS lessees exceeds an arm’s-length rental amount, such excess is potentially subject to this excise tax. While we believe that we structure all of our leases on an arm’s-length basis, upon an audit, the IRS might disagree with our conclusion.
If the leases of our hotels to our TRS lessees are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
To qualify as a REIT, we must annually satisfy two gross income tests, under which specified percentages of our gross income must be derived from certain sources, such as “rents from real property.” Rents paid to us by our TRS lessees pursuant to the leases of our hotels will constitute substantially all of our gross income. In order for such rent to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and not be treated as service contracts, financing arrangements, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. If our leases are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
You may be restricted from transferring our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock.
In order to maintain our REIT qualification, among other requirements, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the U.S. federal income tax laws to include certain entities) during the last half of any taxable year. In addition, the REIT rules generally prohibit a manager of one of our hotels from owning, directly or indirectly, more than 35% of our stock and a person who holds 35% or more of our stock from also holding, directly or indirectly, more than 35% of any such hotel management company. To qualify for and preserve REIT status, our charter contains an aggregate share ownership limit, a common share ownership limit, and a preferred share ownership limit. Generally, any shares of our stock owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the aggregate share ownership limit, and any shares of common stock or preferred stock, as applicable, owned by affiliated owners will be added together for purposes of the common share ownership limit and the preferred share ownership limit.
If anyone transfers or owns shares in a way that would violate the aggregate share ownership limit, the common share ownership limit, or the preferred share ownership limit (unless such ownership limits have been waived by our board of directors), or would prevent us from continuing to qualify as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws, those shares instead will be transferred to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and will be either redeemed by us or sold to a person whose ownership of the shares will not violate the aggregate share ownership limit, the common share ownership limit, or the preferred share ownership limit. If this transfer to a trust would not be effective to prevent a violation of the ownership restrictions in our charter, then the initial intended transfer or ownership will be null and void from the outset. The intended transferee or owner of those shares will be deemed never to have owned the shares. Anyone who acquires or owns shares in violation of the aggregate share ownership limit, the common share ownership limit, the preferred share ownership limit (unless such ownership limits have been waived by our board of directors) or the other restrictions on transfer or ownership in our charter bears the risk of a financial loss when the shares are redeemed or sold if the market price of our stock falls between the date of purchase and the date of redemption or sale.
Even if we maintain our status as a REIT, in certain circumstances, we may be subject to U.S. federal and state income taxes, which would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we may be subject to U.S. federal income taxes or state taxes in various circumstances. For example, net income from a “prohibited transaction” will be subject to a 100% tax. In addition, we may not be able to distribute all of our income in any given year, which would result in corporate level taxes, and we may not make sufficient distributions to avoid excise taxes. We may also decide to retain certain gains from the sale or other disposition of our property and pay income tax directly on such gains. In that event, our stockholders would be required to include such gains in income and would receive a corresponding credit for their share of taxes paid by us. We may also be subject to U.S. state and local and non-U.S. taxes on our income or properties, either directly or at the level of our operating partnership or the other companies through which we indirectly own our assets. In addition, we may be subject to U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. taxes in other various circumstances. Any U.S. federal or state taxes that we pay will reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Our property taxes could increase due to property tax rate changes or reassessment, which could impact our cash flow.
Even if we qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we are required to pay state and local property taxes on our properties. The property taxes on our properties may increase as property tax rates change or as our properties are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. Therefore, the amount of property taxes we pay in the future may increase substantially from
what we have paid in the past and such increases may not be offset by increased room rates at our hotels. If the property taxes we pay increase, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, per share trading price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock and our ability to satisfy our principal and interest obligations and to make distributions to our stockholders may be negatively impacted.
Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for reduced tax rates.
A maximum 20% tax rate applies to “qualified dividend income” payable to individual U.S. stockholders. Dividends payable by REITs, however, are generally not eligible for the reduced rates on qualified dividend income and are taxed at normal ordinary income tax rates (provided that for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate taxpayers generally may deduct 20% of their ordinary REIT dividends that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income”). However, to the extent that our dividends are attributable to certain dividends that we receive from a TRS, such dividends generally will be eligible for the reduced rates that apply to qualified dividend income (but will be ineligible for the 20% deduction). The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay qualified dividend income, which could adversely affect the value of the stock of REITs, including our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock. In addition, some non-REIT corporations may choose to pay dividends or increase dividends as a result of the lower corporate income tax rate that is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. As a result, the trading price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock may be negatively impacted.
Failure of our operating partnership to be taxable as a partnership could cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT and we could suffer other adverse tax consequences.
We believe that our operating partnership will continue to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a partnership and not as an association or as a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation. As a partnership, the operating partnership will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of its partners, including us, will be allocated that partner’s share of the operating partnership’s income. No assurance can be provided, however, that the IRS will not challenge the operating partnership’s status as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were to determine that our operating partnership was properly treated as an association or as a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation, our operating partnership would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax at corporate rates on its net income, its partners would be treated as stockholders of our operating partnership and distributions to partners would constitute distributions that would not be deductible in computing the operating partnership’s taxable income. In addition, we could fail to qualify as a REIT, with the resulting consequences described above.
Our UPREIT structure may result in potential conflicts of interest with limited partners in our operating partnership whose interests may not be aligned with those of our stockholders.
Limited partners in our operating partnership have the right to vote on certain amendments to the agreement that governs our operating partnership, as well as on certain other matters. Persons holding such voting rights may exercise them in a manner that conflicts with our stockholders’ interests. As general partner of our operating partnership, we are obligated to act in a manner that is in the best interests of all partners of our operating partnership. Circumstances may arise in the future when the interests of limited partners in our operating partnership may conflict with the interests of our stockholders. These conflicts may be resolved in a manner that some stockholders believe is not in their best interests.
Legislative or regulatory action could adversely affect our stockholders.
In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments in REITs and similar entities. Additional changes to applicable tax laws are likely to continue to occur in the future, and we cannot assure our stockholders that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of a stockholder. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock. All stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Provisions of our charter may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.
Our charter provides that no person may beneficially own more than 9.8% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our common stock, more than 9.8% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, or more than 9.8% of the value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our capital stock, except certain “look-through entities,” such as mutual funds, which may beneficially own up to 15% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our common stock, up to 15% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, or up to 15% of the value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our capital stock. Our board of directors has waived this ownership limitation for certain investors. Our bylaws waive this ownership limitation for certain other classes of investors. These ownership limitations may prevent an acquisition of control of our company by a third party without our board of directors’ approval, even if our stockholders believe the change of control is in their best interests.
Our charter also authorizes our board of directors to issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock and up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and to set the preferences, rights and other terms of the classified or reclassified shares. Furthermore, our board of directors may, without any action by the stockholders, amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue. Issuances of additional shares of stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium to the market price of our common stock or otherwise be in our stockholders’ best interests.
Certain advance notice provisions of our bylaws may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.
Our bylaws provide that (a) with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in the bylaws and (b) with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders and nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors may be made only (A) by the board of directors or (B) provided that the board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in the bylaws. These advance notice provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium to the market price of our common stock or otherwise be in our stockholders’ best interests.
Provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of our company.
The Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, has certain restrictions on a “business combination” and “control share acquisition” which we have opted out of. If an affirmative majority of votes cast by a majority of stockholders entitled to vote approve it, our board of directors may opt in to such provisions of the MGCL. If we opt in, and the stockholders approve it, these provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interests.
In addition, provisions of Maryland law permit the board of a corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors, without stockholder approval, to implement possible takeover defenses, such as a classified board or a two-thirds vote requirement for removal of a director. These provisions, if implemented, may make it more difficult for a third party to affect a takeover. In February 2014, however, we amended our charter to prohibit us from dividing directors into classes unless such action is first approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
We have entered into an agreement with each of our senior executive officers that provides each of them benefits in the event that his or her employment is terminated by us without cause, by him or her for good reason or under certain circumstances following a change of control of our company.
We have entered into an agreement with each of our senior executive officers that provides each of them with severance benefits if his or her employment is terminated under certain circumstances following a change of control of our company. Certain of these benefits and the related tax indemnity in the case of certain executive officers could prevent or deter a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to make distributions to our stockholders at expected levels, and we cannot assure you of our ability to make distributions in the future.
We intend to pay quarterly dividends that represent at least 90% of our REIT taxable income. Our ability to make these intended distributions may be adversely affected by the factors, risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports that we file from time to time with the SEC. For example, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our board of directors suspended our quarterly common dividend commencing with the quarterly dividend that would have been paid in April 2020 and resumed quarterly common dividends beginning with the quarterly dividend that was paid in October 2022. In addition, our board of directors has the sole discretion to determine the timing, form and amount of any distribution to our stockholders. Our board of directors will make determinations regarding distributions based upon many facts, including our financial performance, our debt service obligations, our debt covenants, our capital expenditure requirements, the requirements for qualification as a REIT and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant from time to time. As a result, no assurance can be given that we will be able to make distributions to our stockholders at expected levels, or at all, or that distributions will increase or even be maintained over time, any of which could materially and adversely affect the market price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock.
Changes in market conditions could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock.
As with other publicly traded equity securities, the value of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock depends on various market conditions that may change from time to time. Among the market conditions that may affect the value of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock are the following:
•the extent of investor interest in our securities;
•the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of our equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate-based companies;
•the underlying asset value of our hotels;
•investor confidence in the stock and bond markets, generally;
•national and local economic conditions;
•changes in tax laws;
•our financial performance; and
•general stock and bond market conditions.
The market value of our common stock is based primarily upon the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions. Consequently, our common stock may trade at prices that are greater or less than our net asset value per share. If our future earnings or cash distributions are less than expected, it is likely that the market price of our common stock will diminish.
In addition, interest rates were at historically low levels for an extended period of time but increased during the year ending December 31, 2022 and may continue to increase in the near term. The market for common shares and preferred shares of publicly traded REITs may be influenced by the distribution yield on their shares (i.e., the amount of annual distributions as a percentage of the market price of their shares) relative to market interest rates. If market interest rates increase, prospective purchasers of REIT common shares and preferred shares may seek to achieve a higher distribution yield, which we may not be able to, or may choose not to, provide. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the returns on investment in our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock to be relatively less attractive to our investors and the market price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock to decline. Additionally, higher market interest rates may adversely impact the market values of our hotels.
The market price of our common stock has been volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss on our common stockholders’ investment.
The market price of our common stock has been highly volatile in the past, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources.
Future issuances of our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or our operating partnership’s common OP units, may depress the market price of our common stock and have a dilutive effect on our existing stockholders.
We cannot predict whether future issuances of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock or the availability of shares for resale in the open market may depress the market price of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock. Future issuances or sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the issuance of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock in connection with future property, portfolio or business acquisitions, or the perception that such issuances or sales might occur, may cause the market price of our shares to decline. In addition, future issuances or sales of our common stock or Series A Preferred Stock may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
Our December 2018 acquisition of Cavallo Point was partially funded by the issuance by our operating partnership of common OP units, which became redeemable by the sellers after the one-year anniversary of such issuance for cash or, at our election, on a one-for-one basis for shares of our common stock. Pursuant to the terms of the contribution agreement governing our acquisition of Cavallo Point, if any of the common OP units are outstanding seven years after their issuance, we have the option to redeem them for cash or shares of our common stock, at our election. In the future, our operating partnership may issue additional common OP units to acquire additional properties or portfolios. Such common OP unit issuances would reduce our ownership interest in the operating partnership and may in the future result in dilution of our shareholders’ equity interests.
Holders of our outstanding Series A Preferred Stock have dividend, liquidation and other rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock.
Our board of directors has the authority to designate and issue preferred stock with liquidation, dividend and other rights that are senior to those of our common stock. As of December 31, 2022, 4,760,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding. The aggregate liquidation preference with respect to the outstanding preferred stock is approximately $119.0 million and aggregate annual dividends on these shares are approximately $9.8 million. Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to cumulative dividends before any dividends may be declared or set aside on our common stock. Upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, before any payment is made to holders of our common stock, holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share plus any accrued and unpaid distributions. This will reduce the remaining amount of our assets, if any, available to distribute to holders of our common stock. In addition, holders of our Series A Preferred Stock have the right to elect two additional directors to our board of directors whenever dividends on the preferred shares are in arrears for six or more quarterly dividends, whether or not consecutive.
The conversion rights of our Series A Preferred Stock may be detrimental to holders of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2022, 4,760,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock were outstanding and could be converted, upon the occurrence of limited specified change in control transactions, into shares of our common stock. The conversation of the Series A Preferred Stock would dilute the stockholder ownership in our Company and common OP unit holder ownership in our operating partnership and could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
Future offerings of debt securities or preferred stock, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation and for the purpose of distributions, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
In the future, we may increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of debt or equity securities, which may include senior or subordinated notes, classes of preferred stock and/or common stock. We will be able to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings could significantly dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Preferred stock and debt, if issued, could have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend or interest payments that could limit our ability to make distributions to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their interest.
We cannot guarantee that we will repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or that our share repurchase program will enhance long-term stockholder value. Share repurchases could also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and could diminish our cash reserves.
The timing, manner, price and actual number of shares repurchased under our share repurchase program will depend on a variety of factors including stock price, corporate and regulatory requirements, market conditions, and other corporate liquidity requirements and priorities. Our share repurchase program may be limited, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. In addition, repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program could affect our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence or use of our share repurchase program may cause our stock price to be higher than it would otherwise be, and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. Additionally, our share repurchase program could diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible any future strategic opportunities or acquisitions. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance stockholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, there is no assurance that it will do so, and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
Tax protection agreements may limit our ability to sell or otherwise dispose of certain properties and may require our operating partnership to maintain certain debt levels that otherwise would not be required to operate our business.
In connection with contributions of properties to our operating partnership, our operating partnership has entered and may in the future enter into tax protection agreements under which it agrees to minimize the tax consequences to the contributing partners resulting from the sale or other disposition of the contributed properties. Tax protection agreements may make it economically prohibitive to sell any properties that are subject to such agreements. In addition, we may be required to maintain a minimum level of indebtedness throughout the term of any tax protection agreement regardless of whether such debt levels are otherwise required to operate our business.
General Risk Factors
Our success depends on senior executive officers whose continued service is not guaranteed, and changes in our senior executive officers may adversely affect the operation of our business.
We depend on the efforts and expertise of our senior executive officers to manage our day-to-day operations and strategic business direction. Finding suitable replacements for senior executive officers could be difficult. The loss of any of their services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We and our hotel managers rely on information technology in our operations and any material failures, inadequacies, interruptions, security failures, social engineering attacks or cyber-attacks could harm our business.
We and our hotel managers rely on information technologies and systems, including the Internet, to access, store, transmit, deliver and manage information and processes. Some of these information technologies and systems are provided by third-party vendors. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission and storage of certain confidential customer information, such as individually identifiable information, including information relating to financial accounts. Recently, a number of hotels and hotel management companies have been subject to successful cyber-attacks including those seeking guest credit card information. Moreover, the risk of a cybersecurity incident or cyber-attack has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world has increased.
For these reasons, we and our hotel managers are subject to risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber-attacks or online fraud schemes, spoofed e-mails and social engineering efforts by hackers aimed at obtaining confidential information. Any compromise of the function, security and availability of our network and systems or the network and systems of our hotel managers or our third-party vendors could result in disruptions to operations, misappropriated or compromised confidential hotel or guest information, systems disruptions, the shutdown of our hotels, exploited security vulnerability of our respective networks, delayed sales or bookings, lost guest reservations and damage to our reputation or the reputations of our hotel managers and third-party vendors. Although we and our hotel managers believe that we have taken commercially reasonable steps to protect the security of these systems, there can be no assurance that such security measures will prevent failures, inadequacies or interruptions in system services, or that system security will not be breached through physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, social engineering attacks and cyber-attacks. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cybersecurity incidents or cyber-attacks could be significant and may increase as the number, intensity and sophistication of such attacks increases. Disruptions in service, system shutdowns and security breaches in either the information technologies and systems of our hotel managers, our third-party vendors or our own information technologies and
systems, including unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, could have a material adverse effect on our business operations and results, our financial and compliance reporting and our reputation.
Many of our hotel managers carry cyber insurance policies to protect and offset a portion of potential costs that may be incurred from a security breach. Additionally, we currently have cyber insurance policies to provide supplemental coverage above the coverage carried by our third-party managers. Despite various precautionary steps to protect our hotels from losses resulting from cyber-attacks, however, any occurrence of a social engineering attack or cyber-attack could still result in losses at our properties, which could affect our results of operations. We are not aware of any cyber incidents that we believe to be material or that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and trading price of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock.
We may be subject to litigation. In addition, we generally indemnify third-party hotel managers for legal costs resulting from management of our hotels. Some of these claims may result in defense costs, settlements, fines or judgments against us, some of which are not covered by insurance. The outcome of these legal proceedings cannot be predicted. Payment of any such costs, settlements, fines or judgments that are not insured could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations. In addition, certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors.
You have limited control as a stockholder regarding any changes that we make to our policies.
Our board of directors determines our major policies, including policies related to our investment objectives, leverage, financing, growth and distributions to our stockholders. Our board of directors may amend or revise these policies without a vote of our stockholders. This means that our stockholders will have limited control over changes in our policies and those changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
The following table sets forth certain information for each of our hotels owned as of December 31, 2022.
Chain Scale Segment (1)
|Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile||Chicago||Illinois||Upper Upscale||Full Service||1,200 ||Marriott|
|Westin Boston Seaport District ||Boston||Massachusetts||Upper Upscale||Full Service||793 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek||Salt Lake City||Utah||Upper Upscale||Full Service||510 ||HEI Hotels & Resorts|
|Worthington Renaissance Fort Worth Hotel||Fort Worth||Texas||Upper Upscale||Full Service||504 ||Marriott|
|Westin San Diego Bayview||San Diego||California||Upper Upscale||Full Service||436 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||Fort Lauderdale||Florida||Upper Upscale||Full Service||433 ||HEI Hotels & Resorts|
|Westin Washington D.C. City Center ||Washington||District of Columbia||Upper Upscale||Full Service||410 ||Sage Hospitality|
|Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall ||Boston||Massachusetts||Upper Upscale||Full Service||403 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|The Hythe Vail||Vail||Colorado||Upper Upscale||Full Service||344 ||Vail Resorts|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East ||New York||New York||Upscale||Select Service||321 ||HEI Hotels & Resorts|
|Atlanta Marriott Alpharetta||Atlanta||Georgia||Upper Upscale||Full Service||318 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|The Gwen Hotel||Chicago||Illinois||Luxury||Full Service||311 ||HEI Hotels & Resorts|
|Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central ||New York||New York||Upscale||Select Service||282 ||Highgate Hotels|
|Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda||Bethesda||Maryland||Upper Upscale||Full Service||272 ||Sage Hospitality|
|Hilton Burlington Lake Champlain||Burlington||Vermont||Upper Upscale||Full Service||258 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Hotel Palomar Phoenix||Phoenix||Arizona||Upper Upscale||Full Service||242 ||Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants|
|Henderson Beach Resort||Destin||Florida||Luxury||Full Service||233 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Bourbon Orleans Hotel||New Orleans||Louisiana||Luxury||Full Service||220 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Hotel Clio (formerly JW Marriott Denver Cherry Creek) ||Denver||Colorado||Luxury||Full Service||199 ||Sage Hospitality|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue ||New York||New York||Upscale||Select Service||189 ||Highgate Hotels|
|Margaritaville Beach House Key West||Key West||Florida||Upper Upscale||Full Service||186 ||Ocean Properties |
|The Lodge at Sonoma Resort||Sonoma||California||Upper Upscale||Full Service||182 ||Sage Hospitality|
|Courtyard Denver Downtown||Denver||Colorado||Upscale||Select Service||177 ||Sage Hospitality|
|Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel||Charleston||South Carolina||Upper Upscale||Full Service||167 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Resort||Huntington Beach||California||Upper Upscale||Full Service||157 ||Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants|
|Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate||Sausalito||California||Luxury||Full Service||142 ||Passport Resorts|
|Havana Cabana Key West||Key West||Florida||Upscale||Select Service||106 ||EOS Hospitality|
|Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort||Marathon||Florida||Luxury||Full Service||103 ||EOS Hospitality|
|Hotel Emblem San Francisco||San Francisco||California||Upper Upscale||Full Service||96 ||Viceroy Hotels & Resorts|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||Fort Lauderdale||Florida||Upper Upscale||Full Service||96 ||HEI Hotels & Resorts|
|L'Auberge de Sedona||Sedona||Arizona||Luxury||Full Service||88 ||Evolution Hospitality|
|The Landing Lake Tahoe Resort & Spa||South Lake Tahoe||California||Luxury||Full Service||82 ||Evolution Hospitality|
|Orchards Inn Sedona||Sedona||Arizona||Upscale||Full Service||70 ||Evolution Hospitality|
|Lake Austin Spa Resort||Austin||Texas||Luxury||Full Service||40 ||EOS Hospitality|
|Henderson Park Inn||Destin||Florida||Upper Midscale||Full Service||37 ||Aimbridge Hospitality|
|Total|| ||9,607 |
(1)As defined by STR, Inc.
Hotel Management Agreements
We are party to hotel management agreements for each hotel we own. The following table sets forth the expiration date of the current term, the terms of termination of the manager by the Company, and the number of remaining renewal terms at the manager's option under the respective hotel management agreements for each of our hotels as of December 31, 2022. Generally, the term of the hotel management agreements, if applicable, renew automatically for a negotiated number of consecutive periods upon the expiration of the initial term unless the manager gives notice to us of its election not to renew the hotel management agreement.
|Property||Manager||Terminable||Expiration Date of Current Term|
Number of Remaining Renewal Terms at Manager's Exclusive Option (1)
|Atlanta Marriott Alpharetta||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||9/2025||None|
|Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda||Sage Hospitality||At will with no fee||2/2027||One five-year period|
|Bourbon Orleans Hotel||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||7/2026||Month-to-month|
|Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate||Ft. Baker Management LLC||At will with fee||6/2023||One five-year period|
|Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile||Marriott||No||12/2038||Two ten-year periods|
|Courtyard Denver Downtown||Sage Hospitality||At will with fee||7/2026||One five-year period|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue||Highgate Hotels||At will with no fee||10/2025||None|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East||HEI Hotels & Resorts||At will with fee||8/2027||None|
|The Gwen Hotel||HEI Hotels & Resorts||At will with fee||6/2026||None|
|Havana Cabana Key West||EOS Hospitality||At will with fee until 5/2023; at will with no fee thereafter||5/2032||Month-to-month|
|Henderson Beach Resort|
|At will with fee until 2/2023; at will with no fee thereafter||2/2032||Month-to-month|
|Henderson Park Inn||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||7/2026||Month-to-month|
|Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall||Aimbridge Hospitality ||At will with no fee||7/2025||None|
|Hilton Burlington Lake Champlain||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||N/A||Month-to-month|
|Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central||Highgate Hotels||No||12/2024|
One five-year period (2)
|Hotel Clio (formerly JW Marriott Denver Cherry Creek)||Sage Hospitality||At will with fee||5/2026||One five-year period|
|Hotel Emblem San Francisco||Viceroy Hotels & Resorts||At will with fee||12/2027||One five-year period|
|Hotel Palomar Phoenix||Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group||2023 upon sale with no fee||12/2027|
One five-year period (3)
|The Hythe Vail||Vail Resorts||At will with fee||1/2024||None|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||HEI Hotels & Resorts||At will with fee until 3/2023; at will with no fee thereafter||3/2028||None|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Resort||Kimpton Hotel & Restaurant Group||At will with fee||2/2025||None|
|Lake Austin Spa Resort||EOS Hospitality||At will with fee until 11/2023; at will with no fee thereafter||11/2032||Month-to-month|
|The Landing Lake Tahoe Resort & Spa||Evolution Hospitality||At will with fee||9/2024||One five-year period |
|L'Auberge de Sedona||Evolution Hospitality||At will with fee||10/2024||One five-year period |
|The Lodge at Sonoma Resort||Sage Hospitality||At will with fee||9/2025||None|
|Margaritaville Beach House Key West||Ocean Properties||No||7/2027||None|
|Orchards Inn Sedona||Evolution Hospitality||At will with fee||10/2024||One five-year period |
|Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||9/2025||None|
|Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek||HEI Hotels & Resorts||At will with no fee||9/2025||None|
|Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort||EOS Hospitality||At will with fee until 3/2023; at will with no fee thereafter||4/2032||Month-to-month|
|Westin Boston Seaport District||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with fee||1/2025||None|
|Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||HEI Hotels & Resorts||At will with no fee||12/2024||None|
|Westin San Diego Bayview||Aimbridge Hospitality||At will with no fee||N/A||Month-to-month|
|Westin Washington D.C. City Center||Sage Hospitality||At will with fee||11/2026||One five-year period |
|Worthington Renaissance Fort Worth Hotel||Marriott||No||12/2031||Two ten-year periods|
(1)Certain agreements allow for other extension rights that may be only at our option.
(2)Hotel manager is entitled to one five-year extension option upon achievement of a certain level of net operating income, which is significantly above current net operating income at the hotel.
(3)Hotel manager is entitled to one five-year extension option if the manager earns an incentive management fee in both 2026 and 2027. The manager did not earn an incentive management fee in 2022.
Under our hotel management agreements, the hotel manager receives a base management fee and, if certain financial thresholds are met or exceeded, an incentive management fee. The base management fee is generally payable as a percentage of gross hotel revenues for each fiscal year. The incentive management fee is generally based on hotel operating profits, but the
fee only applies to that portion of hotel operating profits above a negotiated return on our invested capital, which we refer to as the owner's priority. We refer to this excess of operating profits over the owner's priority as “available cash flow.”
The following table sets forth the base management fee, incentive management fee and furniture, fixture and equipment (“FF&E”) reserve contribution, generally due and payable each fiscal year, for each of our hotels as of December 31, 2022:
Base Management Fee (1)
Incentive Management Fee (2)
FF&E Reserve Contribution (1)
|Atlanta Marriott Alpharetta||2%||15%|
|Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda||1.5%|
|Bourbon Orleans Hotel||1%|
|Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate||2.5%||20%||4%|
|Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile||3%||15%|
|Courtyard Denver Downtown||1.5%|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue||2.5%|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East||1.75%||15%||4%|
|The Gwen Hotel||2.25%||15%||4%|
|Havana Cabana Key West||2.5%||15%|
|Henderson Beach Resort||2.25%||15%|
|Henderson Park Inn||2.5%||15%|
|Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall||1.25%||15%|
|Hilton Burlington Lake Champlain||1.5%|
|Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central||3%||20%||4%|
|Hotel Clio (formerly JW Marriott Denver Cherry Creek)||2%||15%|
|Hotel Emblem San Francisco||2.75%||15%||4%|
|Hotel Palomar Phoenix||3.5%||20%||4%|
|The Hythe Vail||2%||15%|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||2%||15%|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Resort||2.5%||15%||4%|
|Lake Austin Spa Resort||2.5%||15%|
|The Landing Lake Tahoe Resort & Spa||1.25%||15%||4%|
|L'Auberge de Sedona||2.25%||15%||4%|
|The Lodge at Sonoma Resort||2%||15%|
|Margaritaville Beach House Key West||3%||10%||4%|
|Orchards Inn Sedona||2.25%||15%||4%|
|Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel||2%||15%|
|Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek||2%||15%|
|Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort||2.5%||15%|
|Westin Boston Seaport District||1%||15%|
|Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||2%||15%||4%|
|Westin San Diego Bayview||1.5%|
|Westin Washington D.C. City Center||1.5%|
|Worthington Renaissance Fort Worth Hotel||3%||25%||5%|
(1)As a percentage of gross revenues.
(2)As a percentage of hotel operating profits above a specified return on our invested capital or specified operating profit thresholds.
(3)Total incentive management fees are capped at 1% of gross revenues.
(4)The base management fee is the sum of 1.5% of gross revenues and 1.5% gross operating profit. Total management fees are capped at 3% of gross revenues.
(5)The base management fee decreased to 2% (from 2.5%) of gross revenues in July 2022 and further decreased to 1% for the period of September 2022 through December 2022. The base management fee increased back to 2% beginning January 2023 for the remainder of the term.
(6)Calculated as 15% of net operating income. There is no owner's priority; however, the Company's contribution to the hotel's recent multi-year property renovation is treated as a deduction in calculating net operating income.
(7)Beginning January 2023, the base management fee decreases to 2.25% of gross revenues.
(8)The incentive management fee increases to 1.5% of gross revenues if the gross operating profit exceeds a specified amount plus any owner's priority.
(9)Total management fees are capped at 2.5% of gross revenues.
Additional information regarding fees incurred under hotel management agreements can be found in Note 12 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.
The following table sets forth the terms of the hotel franchise agreements for our 20 franchised hotels as of December 31, 2022:
|Franchised Hotels||Expiration Date of Agreement||Franchise Fee|
|Atlanta Marriott Alpharetta|
|6% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales|
|Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda||2/2037|
3.5% of gross room sales; program fee of 4% of gross room sales (2)
|Courtyard Denver Downtown||10/2027||5.5% of gross room sales|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue||12/2035||6% of gross room sales|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East||8/2042||6% of gross room sales|
|The Gwen Hotel||9/2035||5% of gross room sales|
|Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall||7/2023||5% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales; program fee of 4% of gross room sales|
|Hilton Burlington Lake Champlain|
5% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales; program fee of 4% of gross room sales (3)
|Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central||6/2033||5% of gross room sales; program fee of 4.3% of gross room sales|
|Hotel Clio (formerly JW Marriott Denver Cherry Creek)||10/2036|
6% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales (4)
|The Hythe Vail||12/2041|
4% of gross room sales and 1% of gross food and beverage sales (5)
|Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||4/2041||6% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales|
|The Lodge at Sonoma Resort||12/2035||5% of gross room sales|
|Margaritaville Beach House Key West||4/2041||5% of gross revenues|
|Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel||12/2031||5% of gross room sales|
|Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek|
|6% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales|
|Westin Boston Seaport District||12/2026|
5% of gross room sales and 1% of gross food and beverage sales (6)
|Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||12/2034||6% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales|
|Westin San Diego Bayview||12/2040||7% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales|
|Westin Washington D.C. City Center||12/2040||7% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales|
(1)The franchise agreement may be extended at Marriott's option for one 10-year term.
(2)In February 2026, the franchise fee will increase to 5.5% of gross room sales through the remainder of the term.
(3)On August 22, 2022, we entered into a franchise agreement to convert the brand to a Curio Collection Hotel. The new franchise agreement has a term of ten years, and the brand conversion will be effective upon the completion of an agreed-upon renovation. The franchise fees will be 4% of gross rooms sales for the first four years and then increase to 5% through the remainder of the term. There will also be a program fee of 4% of gross rooms sales.
(4)In January 2030, the franchise fees will decrease to 5% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales.
(5)In November 2023, the franchise fees will increase to 5% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales through the remainder of the term.
(6)In January 2023, the franchise fees increased to 6% of gross room sales and 2% of gross food and beverage sales. In January 2026, the franchise fees will increase to 7% of gross room sales and 3% of gross food and beverage sales through the remainder of the term.
Additional information regarding fees incurred under franchise agreements can be found in Note 12 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Four of our hotels are encumbered by mortgage debt. Additional information regarding such hotels can be found in Note 8 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Eight of our hotels and two parking areas are subject to ground lease agreements. Additional information regarding our hotels that are subject to ground leases can be found in Notes 4 and 13 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
We are subject to various claims, lawsuits and legal proceedings, including routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, regarding the operation of our hotels and Company matters. While it is not possible to ascertain the ultimate outcome of such matters, management believes that the aggregate amount of such liabilities, if any, in excess of amounts covered by insurance, will not have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. The outcome of claims, lawsuits and legal proceedings brought against the Company, however, is subject to significant uncertainties.
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol “DRH”. The closing price of our common stock on the NYSE on December 31, 2022 was $8.19 per share.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the five-year cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total returns of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index (the “S&P 500 Total Return”) and the Dow Jones U.S. Hotels & Lodging REITs Index (the “Dow Jones U.S. Hotels Total Return”). We believe the Dow Jones U.S. Hotels & Lodging REITs Index's total return provides a relevant industry sector comparison to our common stock's total stockholder return given the index is based on REITs that primarily invest in lodging real estate.
The graph assumes an initial investment on December 31, 2017 of $100 in our common stock in each of the indices and also assumes the reinvestment of dividends. The total return values do not include dividends declared, but not paid, during the period.
|DiamondRock Hospitality Company Total Return||$100.00 ||$83.10 ||$107.75 ||$80.23 ||$93.45 ||$80.55 |
|S&P 500 Total Return||$100.00 ||$95.62 ||$125.72 ||$148.85 ||$191.58 ||$156.88 |
|Dow Jones U.S. Hotel Hotels Total Return||$100.00 ||$83.21 ||$91.28 ||$60.95 ||$72.44 ||$67.72 |
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must make distributions to our stockholders each year in an amount equal to at least:
•90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains, plus
•90% of the excess of our net income from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code, minus
•any excess non-cash income.
We generally pay quarterly cash dividends to common stockholders at the discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors suspended our quarterly common dividend commencing with the quarterly dividend that would have been paid in April 2020 and resumed quarterly common dividends beginning in the third quarter of 2022. The timing and frequency of future dividends will be determined by our board of directors after considering a variety of factors, including our financial performance, restrictions under applicable law and our current and future loan agreements, our debt service requirements, our capital expenditure requirements, the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant from time to time.
As of February 21, 2023, there were 14 record holders of our common stock and we believe we have more than one thousand beneficial holders. As of February 21, 2023, there were 11 holders of common OP units (in addition to the Company and executive officers of the Company).
In order to comply with certain requirements related to our qualification as a REIT, our charter, subject to certain exceptions, limits the number of common shares that may be owned by any single person or affiliated group to 9.8% of the outstanding common shares.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2022 regarding shares of common stock that may be issued under the Company’s equity compensation plans.
|Plan Category||Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights||Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights||Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans (Excluding Securities Reflected in Column (a))|
|Equity compensation plans approved by security holders|
|Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders||—||—||—|
(1) Includes 1,958,303 shares of common stock issuable pursuant to our deferred compensation plan and 950,653 shares of common stock issuable upon the achievement of certain performance conditions.
(2) Performance stock units and deferred stock units do not have any exercise price.
Fourth Quarter 2022 Repurchases of Equity Securities
Total Number of Shares Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (in thousands) (1)
|October 1 - October 31, 2022||1,569,687||$||7.81 ||1,569,687||$||187,744 |
|November 1 - November 30, 2022||—||$||— ||—||$||— |
|December 1 - December 31, 2022||—||$||— ||—||$||— |
(1)Represents amounts available under the Company's $200.0 million share repurchase program approved by the board of directors on September 29, 2022 (the “Share Repurchase Program”). The Share Repurchase Program does not obligate the Company to acquire any particular amount of shares, and may be suspended or discontinued at any time at the Company’s discretion. The Share Repurchase Program expires on February 28, 2025.
Fourth Quarter 2022 Sales of Unregistered Securities
Item 6. Reserved
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business. These statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially because of factors discussed in "Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other reports that we file from time to time with the SEC.
DiamondRock Hospitality Company is a lodging-focused real estate company operating as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes that owns a portfolio of premium hotels and resorts. As of December 31, 2022, we owned a portfolio of 35 premium hotels and resorts that contain 9,607 guest rooms located in 24 different markets in the United States.
As an owner, rather than an operator of lodging properties, we receive all of the operating profits or losses generated by our hotels after the payment of fees due to hotel managers and hotel brands, which are calculated based on the revenues and profitability of each hotel.
Key Indicators of Financial Condition and Operating Performance
We use a variety of operating and other information to evaluate the financial condition and operating performance of our business. These key indicators include financial information that is prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”), as well as other financial information that is not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, we use other information that may not be financial in nature, including statistical information and comparative data. We use this information to measure the performance of individual hotels, groups of hotels and/or our business as a whole. We periodically compare historical information to our internal budgets as well as industry-wide information. These key indicators include:
•Average Daily Rate (or ADR);
•Rooms Revenue per Available Room (or RevPAR);
•Earnings Before Interest, Income Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (or EBITDA), Earnings Before Interest, Income Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization for real estate (or EBITDAre), and Adjusted EBITDA; and
•Funds From Operations (or FFO) and Adjusted FFO.
Occupancy, ADR and RevPAR are commonly used measures within the hotel industry to evaluate operating performance. RevPAR, which is calculated as the product of ADR and occupancy percentage, is an important statistic for monitoring operating performance at the individual hotel level and across our business as a whole. We evaluate individual hotel RevPAR performance on an absolute basis with comparisons to budget and prior periods, as well as on a company-wide and regional basis. ADR and RevPAR include only room revenue. Room revenue comprised approximately 68% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022 and is dictated by demand, as measured by occupancy percentage, pricing, as measured by ADR, and our available supply of hotel rooms.
Our ADR, occupancy percentage and RevPAR performance may be impacted by macroeconomic factors such as U.S. economic conditions generally, increasing inflation, rising interest rates, regional and local employment growth, personal income and corporate earnings, office vacancy rates and business relocation decisions, airport and other business and leisure travel, increased use of lodging alternatives, new hotel construction and the pricing strategies of our competitors. In addition, our ADR, occupancy percentage and RevPAR performance is dependent on the continued success of our hotels' global brands.
We also use EBITDA, EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDA, FFO and Adjusted FFO as measures of the financial performance of our business. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for further discussion on these financial measures.
COVID-19 has had and continues to have a significant effect on our industry in general and our business in particular. The demand for lodging materially decreased beginning in March 2020 and remained low throughout 2021. During 2022, demand significantly improved as a result of vaccinations, lifting of governmental restrictions, and an overall increase in public demand for leisure travel, among other factors.
Four of our hotels (one of which was sold on June 30, 2021) had suspended operations for a period of time during the year ended December 31, 2021. All of our hotels were open during the year ended December 31, 2022.
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to contribute to uncertainty and volatility with respect to our results of operations, financial position and cash flows for 2023 as the recovery continues. We expect that the pace will vary from market to market and may be uneven in nature. Although leisure travel has rebounded and there were signs of a robust recovery in business travel in 2022 relative to 2021, there remains significant uncertainty regarding the future pace of recovery and whether and when business travel and larger group meetings will return to pre-pandemic levels. The emergence of new variant strains of COVID-19 has the potential to slow or reverse positive trends expected in 2023 and beyond.
See also “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
Overview of 2022
Key highlights for 2022 include the following:
Hotel Acquisitions. On January 6, 2022, we acquired the Tranquility Bay Beachfront Resort located in Marathon, Florida, for $62.4 million, including prorations and transaction costs. This acquisition included income from 84 units owned by third parties and the majority of the intervals in three units structured as vacation ownership. Subsequent to this purchase, we acquired four of the 84 units. On April 1, 2022, we acquired the Kimpton Shorebreak Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, for $35.6 million, including prorations and transaction costs. On November 21, 2022, we acquired the Lake Austin Spa Resort located in Austin, Texas, for $75.8 million, including prorations and transaction costs.
Financing Activity. On September 27, 2022, we entered into an amended and restated credit agreement that provides for a $400 million senior unsecured revolving credit facility and two term loan facilities in the aggregate amount of $800 million. We used the proceeds from the new term loans to repay our previously existing terms loans and amounts outstanding on our prior revolving credit facility, as well as four of our outstanding mortgage loans that were schedule to mature in 2023.
Share Repurchases. On September 29, 2022, our board of directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $200.0 million of our common stock through February 28, 2025. As of December 31, 2022, we have repurchased 1.6 million shares of common stock.
Common Dividends. In the third quarter, we resumed the payment of quarterly common dividends.
Outlook for 2023
Many economists expect that the U.S. economy may contract in the second half of 2023 as a result of actions by the Federal Reserve to restrain inflation. The ultimate timing and magnitude of a potential recession, however, is unknown. Travel demand is highly sensitive to changes in macroeconomic factors and the threat of even a mild recession creates a backdrop of uncertainty for the hospitality industry. The effect is compounded because the industry experienced a disproportionate impact from the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent recovery has been uneven across markets and customer segments.
Our portfolio is composed primarily of luxury and upper-upscale resorts and hotels located in popular leisure destinations and major urban markets. Our destination resorts have outperformed the recovery of the broader U.S. hospitality market and, depending on the macroeconomic environment, we expect the strong consumer preference for drive-to destinations will support strong sales and profits at our resorts in 2023. Longer term, we believe robust secular demand for experiential leisure travel, low growth in directly competitive supply, and targeted investments to renovate and reposition destination hotels can extend and intensify our growth. Urban hotels comprise the majority of our portfolio and we believe these hotels are well positioned for outsized growth in 2023 as employers encourage return-to-office and business travel for their employees. Corporate travel across our portfolio has increased steadily from the depths of the global pandemic and is poised to exceed pre-pandemic levels in 2023 based on strong group booking pace and recent business transient demand patterns. We anticipate industry profitability will be challenged by a short booking window and emerging and shifting travel patterns, as well as pressures on property taxes, insurance and overall labor costs. We continue to work closely with our hotel managers to maximize revenue and identify operating efficiencies.
We expect the expansion of corporate travel demand will enable the industry to improve profits in 2023 and we enter the year with several favorable factors, including: (1) ownership of a high-quality portfolio, with a meaningful concentration of experiential destination resorts, (2) internal growth from five recent and two pending hotel upbrandings, (3) internal growth from the continuation of our asset management initiatives and return on investment projects, (4) expense savings from the conversion of six formerly Marriott-managed contracts to Marriott franchises, (5) conservative debt capital structure with limited near-term debt maturities, and (6) liquidity of over $550 million as of December 31, 2022.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth certain operating information for the year ended December 31, 2022 for each of the hotels we owned during 2022. The table indicates the operating status of each hotel and the occupancy percentage, ADR and RevPAR for each hotel for the portion of the year ended December 31, 2022 that the hotel was owned by the Company.
|Occupancy (%)||ADR ($)||RevPAR($)||% Change|
from 2021 RevPAR
Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile
|Chicago, Illinois||1,200 ||54.6 ||%||$||242.34 ||$||132.20 ||114.9 ||%|
Westin Boston Seaport District
|Boston, Massachusetts||793 ||75.3 ||%||240.49 ||181.09 ||106.9 ||%|
|Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown at City Creek||Salt Lake City, Utah||510 ||59.4 ||%||176.24 ||104.70 ||66.1 ||%|
|Worthington Renaissance Fort Worth Hotel||Fort Worth, Texas||504 ||68.9 ||%||188.68 ||129.95 ||55.9 ||%|
|Westin San Diego Bayview||San Diego, California||436 ||72.8 ||%||201.64 ||146.88 ||75.9 ||%|
|Westin Fort Lauderdale Beach Resort||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||433 ||75.9 ||%||269.09 ||204.22 ||39.9 ||%|
|Westin Washington D.C. City Center||Washington, D.C.||410 ||60.1 ||%||214.53 ||128.87 ||190.6 ||%|
|Hilton Boston Downtown/Faneuil Hall||Boston, Massachusetts||403 ||77.7 ||%||293.11 ||227.79 ||85.2 ||%|
|The Hythe Vail||Vail, Colorado||344 ||53.2 ||%||431.18 ||229.35 ||42.3 ||%|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Midtown East||New York, New York||321 ||83.8 ||%||328.22 ||275.05 ||77.3 ||%|
|Atlanta Marriott Alpharetta||Atlanta, Georgia||318 ||56.0 ||%||150.24 ||84.16 ||64.6 ||%|
The Gwen Hotel
|Chicago, Illinois||311 ||73.0 ||%||297.88 ||217.59 ||59.2 ||%|
|Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central||New York, New York||282 ||93.2 ||%||276.71 ||257.91 ||121.4 ||%|
|Embassy Suites by Hilton Bethesda||Bethesda, Maryland||272 ||52.2 ||%||143.75 ||75.01 ||90.5 ||%|
Hilton Burlington Lake Champlain
|Burlington, Vermont||258 ||73.7 ||%||245.87 ||181.23 ||26.0 ||%|
Hotel Palomar Phoenix
|Phoenix, Arizona||242 ||65.8 ||%||221.10 ||145.48 ||45.9 ||%|
Henderson Beach Resort
|Destin, Florida||233 ||61.8 ||%||473.56 ||292.87 ||3.2 ||%|
Bourbon Orleans Hotel
|New Orleans, Louisiana||220 ||67.1 ||%||236.79 ||158.86 ||131.7 ||%|
|Hotel Clio||Denver, Colorado||199 ||69.7 ||%||304.01 ||211.87 ||27.0 ||%|
|Courtyard New York Manhattan/Fifth Avenue||New York, New York||189 ||93.3 ||%||277.34 ||258.80 ||124.9 ||%|
|Margaritaville Beach House Key West||Key West, Florida||186 ||79.8 ||%||449.79 ||358.95 ||10.3 ||%|
The Lodge at Sonoma Resort
|Sonoma, California||182 ||62.6 ||%||462.85 ||289.59 ||35.8 ||%|
Courtyard Denver Downtown
|Denver, Colorado||177 ||74.2 ||%||204.49 ||151.80 ||61.5 ||%|
|Renaissance Charleston Historic District Hotel||Charleston, South Carolina||167 ||85.4 ||%||360.02 ||307.37 ||22.3 ||%|
|Kimpton Shorebreak Resort||Huntington Beach, California||157 ||80.7 ||%||345.17 ||278.42 ||33.8 ||%|
Cavallo Point, The Lodge at the Golden Gate
|Sausalito, California||142 ||51.1 ||%||700.56 ||358.26 ||20.6 ||%|
Havana Cabana Key West